Wines

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Author:
alexcabe
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258540
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Wines
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2014-03-13 15:52:41
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Cornell Wines Spring 2014
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Cornell Wines Class Part One
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  1. What are the most popular white wines at home?
    Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio
  2. What are the most popular red wines at home?
    Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  3. What are the most popular white wines in restaurants?
    Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc
  4. What are the most popular red wines in restaurants?
    Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon
  5. What are four things a label tells you?
    • Who- the company
    • Where- the winery
    • When- the vintage
    • What- the grape variety
  6. What is the difference between red wine and white?
    Red wine contains grape skins, ferments longer, and is served at room temperature with food. White wine comes from white grapes or contains no skins, ferments less, and is served cool and alone.
  7. What is an advantage and disadvantage of mechanical grape harvesting?
    An advantage is that it's cheaper, a disadvantage is that it's harder to separate waste.
  8. What is "free run" juice?
    Juice from crushing instead of pressing, usually considered better.
  9. Why is sulfur dioxide added to must?
    To kill wild yeast.
  10. What is added to must to kill wild yeast?
    Sulfur dioxide.
  11. Why and how is wine stabilized?
    To prevent crystallization, by chilling or chemicals.
  12. Why are wine barrels blended?
    For a consistent flavor.
  13. What is an advantage of larger bottles?
    They keep longer.
  14. How is pink wine made?
    Similar to red wine, but with less contact with grape skins.
  15. What chemical accounts for the flavor difference between red and white wine?
    Tannin.
  16. What is table wine?
    Non-carbonated wine with ABV of less than 14%.
  17. What is dessert wine?
    Non-carbonated wine with ABV of greater than 14%, usually sweet.
  18. What is sparkling wine?
    Wine with bubbles.
  19. Why should bottles be stored horizontally?
    So the cork stays moist.
  20. What is a reserve wine list?
    A restaurant's list of rare and special wines.
  21. What is a vintage?
    The year the grapes used to make a wine were picked.
  22. What is a capsule?
    The foil covering over a cork in a wine bottle.
  23. What is a worm?
    The squiggly part of a corkscrew.
  24. What wines need to breathe after being opened?
    Young red wines or older wines with sediment.
  25. Of red, white, and sparkling, which require the largest and smallest glasses?
    Red requires the largest, sparkling requires the smallest.
  26. What temperature is red wine served at?
    Cool room temperature.
  27. What temperature is white wine served at?
    Cooled.
  28. What temperature is sparkling wine served at?
    Chilled.
  29. What type of glass is best for Champagne?
    Tulip.
  30. How full should a red wine glass be?
    1/3.
  31. How full should a white wine glass be?
    1/2
  32. How full should a sparkling wine glass be?
    2/3
  33. What comes first, dry or sweet?
    Dry.
  34. What order should you serve red, white, and sparkling wine?
    Sparkling, white, red.
  35. What is Terroir?
    The soil and climate where wine grapes are grown.
  36. Why are dry wines dry and sweet wines sweet?
    Length of fermentation- The yeast in dry wine ferments longer and consumes more sugar.
  37. When are white wines pressed?
    Before fermentation
  38. When are red wines pressed?
    After fermentation
  39. What are the three steps of wine tasting?
    Look, smell, sip.
  40. What is nose?
    The smell of a wine
  41. What is the difference between bouquet and aroma?
    Aroma comes from the grape variety, bouquet comes from the winemaking process
  42. What is off-dry wine?
    Wine that is between dry and sweet
  43. What is the color difference between older and younger white wine?
    Younger white wine is paler, older is medium gold.
  44. What is the color difference between older and younger red wine?
    Younger is more purple, older is more orange.
  45. What are legs and what do they tell you?
    How the wine runs down a glass, they tell you the viscosity and alcohol content of the wine.
  46. Where does a wine's acidity come from?
    The pulp.
  47. Where does a wine's tannin come from?
    Skins, stems, and pits
  48. What is balance?
    The relative sweetness and acidity
  49. What is length?
    Whether you can taste the wine across your palate.
  50. What is body?
    The impression of a wines weight or size.
  51. What is finish?
    The aftertaste of a wine
  52. What is typicity?
    How true a wine is to its type.
  53. How does corked wine smell?
    Like damp cardboard
  54. What is the typical range of alcohol in wine?
    7 to 15%
  55. What does body tell you about alcohol?
    Full bodied wines have more alcohol.
  56. What is the relation of climate to alcohol?
    Wines from warmer climates have more alcohol.
  57. What is Chaptalization?
    Adding sugar to must to raise alcohol content
  58. How do you describe wines with low, correct, and high acid?
    Flat, crisp, green or harsh
  59. What is acidification and where is it used?
    Adding tartaric acid to wines, usually in warm climates.
  60. What is amelioration and when is it used?
    Adding water and sugar to reduce acid, usually in cool climates.
  61. What is personality?
    The flavor profile of a grape variety.
  62. What is a performance factor?
    How a grape variety grows and ripens.
  63. What does ripeness do to flavor?
    Riper grapes have more sugar and less acid.
  64. What is a noble variety?
    A highly rated variety that dominates a region.
  65. What are Chardonnay grapes used for and what do they taste like?
    Dry white and sparkling wine, has apple or toasty flavor
  66. What do Reisling grapes taste like?
    White, acidic.
  67. What does Sauvignon Blanc taste like?
    White, acidic, herbal.
  68. What does Pinot Gris taste like?
    White, medium bodied, oaked
  69. What does Cabernet Sauvignon taste like?
    Red, tannic, medium to full bodied
  70. What does Merlot taste like?
    Red, full bodied, high alcohol
  71. What does Pinor Noir taste like?
    Red, low alcohol, high acidity
  72. What does Syrah taste like?
    Red, full body, firm tannin
  73. What are the three stages of a sip.
    Attack (introduction), evolution, finish.
  74. What is a bonded winery?
    A winery licensed to ship and sell
  75. Name two setbacks to American winemaking
    Phylloxera and prohibition
  76. How did winemakers deal with phylloxera?
    Grafting European vines to American roots.
  77. What is an AVA?
    American viticultural area, specific government designated region where wine is grown
  78. What is the most famous California wine region and what does it make?
    Napa Valley, Cabernet Sauvignon
  79. What are the three New York wine regions?
    Finger Lakes, Hudson Valley, Long Island
  80. Who first planted Vinefra grapes in New York?
    Dr. Frank in the 1950s
  81. Who restarted wine production in New York after prohibition?
    Fournier
  82. What did Andre Tchleistcheff do?
    Implemented technological methods in California winemaking
  83. What is California's signature wine?
    Zinfandel
  84. What wine is Robert Mondavi associated with?
    Fume Blanc
  85. What are the two primary ways wines are named?
    Grape variety in US, place name in Europe
  86. What is a PDO?
    European equivalent of AVA
  87. Does "reserve" have meaning?
    Yes in Europe, no in US.
  88. What is viticulture?
    The growing of grapes
  89. What is vinification?
    The making of grapes into wine
  90. Which is more oaky, barrel fermented or barrel aged?
    Barrel aged.
  91. What is the organization that monitors French wine production methods?
    INAO
  92. What is the heirarchy of French wine classifications?
    • AC/AOC
    • VDQO/ Vin de Pays
    • IGP/ Vin de Table
  93. What is the general rule for location and quality?
    The more specific the location, the better the quality
  94. Why was French wine regulation created?
    Because of low quality wines made after the Phylloxera outbreak.
  95. What does "sur lie" mean?
    Wine aged with yeast still in the bottle
  96. What are three wines important to the Loire Valley?
    Vouvray, Muscadet, Sauvignon Blanc
  97. What are the five major wine regions of France?
    • Bordeaux
    • Burgandy
    • Loire Valley
    • Rhone
    • Alsace
  98. What are four wines important in Alsace?
    Reisling, Pinot blanc, Pinot Gris, Gerwurztaminer
  99. What does "vendage tardive" mean?
    Harvested late
  100. What is French for dry?
    Sec
  101. What is French for off dry?
    Demi sec
  102. What is French for Semi sweet?
    Moelleux
  103. What is French for sweet?
    Doux
  104. What is Grand Cru?
    Expensive wine from a small percentage of top vineyards
  105. What is selection de Grains Noble?
    Grapes affected by a fungus, sweet and expensive
  106. What are vielles vignes?
    Old vines
  107. What is the largest French wine region?
    Bordeaux
  108. What type of wine is the left bank of Bordeaux most famous for?
    Cabernet Savignon
  109. What type of wine is the right bank of Bordeaux most famous for?
    Merlot
  110. What year were the Bordeaux growth classifications?
    1855
  111. Name three Bordeaux districts
    Haut medoc, Graves, St. Julien
  112. What is the type of wine with Noble rot?
    Sauternes
  113. What is a red wine that ages well?
    Cabernet sauvignon
  114. What are the German words for dry and sweet?
    Trocken and Suss
  115. What are the 3  most important German varieties?
    Reisling, Silvaner, Miller-Thurgau
  116. What color are most German wines?
    White
  117. What does a Pradikat rating indicate?
    Ripeness of grapes
  118. What are 3 important German wine regions?
    • Mosel
    • Rheingau
    • Pfaltz
  119. What is the most important Austrian wine variety?
    Grunner Veltliner
  120. What did Austria do that caused a scandal in the 1980s?
    Added glycol to wine
  121. What country grows on steep slopes near rivers?
    Germany
  122. What is the world's most productive wine region?
    Italy
  123. Which nation has the most grape varieties?
    Italy
  124. Name two important regional Nebbolios
    Barolo and Barbaresco
  125. What is the highest Italian classification?
    DOCG
  126. What is the Italian equivalent of AOC?
    DOC
  127. What is Tuscany famous for?
    Chianti and Chianti Classico
  128. Name two important Italian grape varieties
    Sangiovese, Nebbolio
  129. What is a super Tuscan wine?
    A Tuscan blend
  130. What Italian wine region is famous for white wines?
    The northeast/ Tre Venize
  131. What are the three label categories that tell you, in order, how much of a wine was grown at a California Vineyard?
    Grown

    Produced 

    Made
  132. Name a New York Labrusca grape variety
    Concord
  133. Name a New York hybrid grape variety
    Aurora
  134. What appellation usually means a wine is sparkling?
    Cremant
  135. Which region is important for its Nebbolio?
    Piedmont
  136. In a wine labeled NY or California, how much of the grape must be from that state?
    75%
  137. For an AVA label, how much of the wine must be from that AVA?
    85%
  138. For a US varietal label, how much of the wine must be from that variety?
    75%
  139. For a French varietal label, how much of the wine must be from that variety?
    100%

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