Card Set Information
Cornell Wines Spring 2014
Cornell Wines Class Part One
What are the most popular white wines at home?
Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio
What are the most popular red wines at home?
Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
What are the most popular white wines in restaurants?
Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc
What are the most popular red wines in restaurants?
Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon
What are four things a label tells you?
Who- the company
Where- the winery
When- the vintage
What- the grape variety
What is the difference between red wine and white?
Red wine contains grape skins, ferments longer, and is served at room temperature with food. White wine comes from white grapes or contains no skins, ferments less, and is served cool and alone.
What is an advantage and disadvantage of mechanical grape harvesting?
An advantage is that it's cheaper, a disadvantage is that it's harder to separate waste.
What is "free run" juice?
Juice from crushing instead of pressing, usually considered better.
Why is sulfur dioxide added to must?
To kill wild yeast.
What is added to must to kill wild yeast?
Why and how is wine stabilized?
To prevent crystallization, by chilling or chemicals.
Why are wine barrels blended?
For a consistent flavor.
What is an advantage of larger bottles?
They keep longer.
How is pink wine made?
Similar to red wine, but with less contact with grape skins.
What chemical accounts for the flavor difference between red and white wine?
What is table wine?
Non-carbonated wine with ABV of less than 14%.
What is dessert wine?
Non-carbonated wine with ABV of greater than 14%, usually sweet.
What is sparkling wine?
Wine with bubbles.
Why should bottles be stored horizontally?
So the cork stays moist.
What is a reserve wine list?
A restaurant's list of rare and special wines.
What is a vintage?
The year the grapes used to make a wine were picked.
What is a capsule?
The foil covering over a cork in a wine bottle.
What is a worm?
The squiggly part of a corkscrew.
What wines need to breathe after being opened?
Young red wines or older wines with sediment.
Of red, white, and sparkling, which require the largest and smallest glasses?
Red requires the largest, sparkling requires the smallest.
What temperature is red wine served at?
Cool room temperature.
What temperature is white wine served at?
What temperature is sparkling wine served at?
What type of glass is best for Champagne?
How full should a red wine glass be?
How full should a white wine glass be?
How full should a sparkling wine glass be?
What comes first, dry or sweet?
What order should you serve red, white, and sparkling wine?
Sparkling, white, red.
What is Terroir?
The soil and climate where wine grapes are grown.
Why are dry wines dry and sweet wines sweet?
Length of fermentation- The yeast in dry wine ferments longer and consumes more sugar.
When are white wines pressed?
When are red wines pressed?
What are the three steps of wine tasting?
Look, smell, sip.
What is nose?
The smell of a wine
What is the difference between bouquet and aroma?
Aroma comes from the grape variety, bouquet comes from the winemaking process
What is off-dry wine?
Wine that is between dry and sweet
What is the color difference between older and younger white wine?
Younger white wine is paler, older is medium gold.
What is the color difference between older and younger red wine?
Younger is more purple, older is more orange.
What are legs and what do they tell you?
How the wine runs down a glass, they tell you the viscosity and alcohol content of the wine.
Where does a wine's acidity come from?
Where does a wine's tannin come from?
Skins, stems, and pits
What is balance?
The relative sweetness and acidity
What is length?
Whether you can taste the wine across your palate.
What is body?
The impression of a wines weight or size.
What is finish?
The aftertaste of a wine
What is typicity?
How true a wine is to its type.
How does corked wine smell?
Like damp cardboard
What is the typical range of alcohol in wine?
7 to 15%
What does body tell you about alcohol?
Full bodied wines have more alcohol.
What is the relation of climate to alcohol?
Wines from warmer climates have more alcohol.
What is Chaptalization?
Adding sugar to must to raise alcohol content
How do you describe wines with low, correct, and high acid?
Flat, crisp, green or harsh
What is acidification and where is it used?
Adding tartaric acid to wines, usually in warm climates.
What is amelioration and when is it used?
Adding water and sugar to reduce acid, usually in cool climates.
What is personality?
The flavor profile of a grape variety.
What is a performance factor?
How a grape variety grows and ripens.
What does ripeness do to flavor?
Riper grapes have more sugar and less acid.
What is a noble variety?
A highly rated variety that dominates a region.
What are Chardonnay grapes used for and what do they taste like?
Dry white and sparkling wine, has apple or toasty flavor
What do Reisling grapes taste like?
What does Sauvignon Blanc taste like?
White, acidic, herbal.
What does Pinot Gris taste like?
White, medium bodied, oaked
What does Cabernet Sauvignon taste like?
Red, tannic, medium to full bodied
What does Merlot taste like?
Red, full bodied, high alcohol
What does Pinor Noir taste like?
Red, low alcohol, high acidity
What does Syrah taste like?
Red, full body, firm tannin
What are the three stages of a sip.
Attack (introduction), evolution, finish.
What is a bonded winery?
A winery licensed to ship and sell
Name two setbacks to American winemaking
Phylloxera and prohibition
How did winemakers deal with phylloxera?
Grafting European vines to American roots.
What is an AVA?
American viticultural area, specific government designated region where wine is grown
What is the most famous California wine region and what does it make?
Napa Valley, Cabernet Sauvignon
What are the three New York wine regions?
Finger Lakes, Hudson Valley, Long Island
Who first planted Vinefra grapes in New York?
Dr. Frank in the 1950s
Who restarted wine production in New York after prohibition?
What did Andre Tchleistcheff do?
Implemented technological methods in California winemaking
What is California's signature wine?
What wine is Robert Mondavi associated with?
What are the two primary ways wines are named?
Grape variety in US, place name in Europe
What is a PDO?
European equivalent of AVA
Does "reserve" have meaning?
Yes in Europe, no in US.
What is viticulture?
The growing of grapes
What is vinification?
The making of grapes into wine
Which is more oaky, barrel fermented or barrel aged?
What is the organization that monitors French wine production methods?
What is the heirarchy of French wine classifications?
VDQO/ Vin de Pays
IGP/ Vin de Table
What is the general rule for location and quality?
The more specific the location, the better the quality
Why was French wine regulation created?
Because of low quality wines made after the Phylloxera outbreak.
What does "sur lie" mean?
Wine aged with yeast still in the bottle
What are three wines important to the Loire Valley?
Vouvray, Muscadet, Sauvignon Blanc
What are the five major wine regions of France?
What are four wines important in Alsace?
Reisling, Pinot blanc, Pinot Gris, Gerwurztaminer
What does "vendage tardive" mean?
What is French for dry?
What is French for off dry?
What is French for Semi sweet?
What is French for sweet?
What is Grand Cru?
Expensive wine from a small percentage of top vineyards
What is selection de Grains Noble?
Grapes affected by a fungus, sweet and expensive
What are vielles vignes?
What is the largest French wine region?
What type of wine is the left bank of Bordeaux most famous for?
What type of wine is the right bank of Bordeaux most famous for?
What year were the Bordeaux growth classifications?
Name three Bordeaux districts
Haut medoc, Graves, St. Julien
What is the type of wine with Noble rot?
What is a red wine that ages well?
What are the German words for dry and sweet?
Trocken and Suss
What are the 3 most important German varieties?
Reisling, Silvaner, Miller-Thurgau
What color are most German wines?
What does a Pradikat rating indicate?
Ripeness of grapes
What are 3 important German wine regions?
What is the most important Austrian wine variety?
What did Austria do that caused a scandal in the 1980s?
Added glycol to wine
What country grows on steep slopes near rivers?
What is the world's most productive wine region?
Which nation has the most grape varieties?
Name two important regional Nebbolios
Barolo and Barbaresco
What is the highest Italian classification?
What is the Italian equivalent of AOC?
What is Tuscany famous for?
Chianti and Chianti Classico
Name two important Italian grape varieties
What is a super Tuscan wine?
A Tuscan blend
What Italian wine region is famous for white wines?
The northeast/ Tre Venize
What are the three label categories that tell you, in order, how much of a wine was grown at a California Vineyard?
Name a New York Labrusca grape variety
Name a New York hybrid grape variety
What appellation usually means a wine is sparkling?
Which region is important for its Nebbolio?
In a wine labeled NY or California, how much of the grape must be from that state?
For an AVA label, how much of the wine must be from that AVA?
For a US varietal label, how much of the wine must be from that variety?
For a French varietal label, how much of the wine must be from that variety?