Pharmacology - Aminoglycosides 1

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Pharmacology - Aminoglycosides 1
2014-01-26 23:14:38
Pharmacology Aminoglycosides

Pharmacology - Aminoglycosides 1
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  1. What type of infections are aminoglycosides mainly used to treat?
    G- aerobes
  2. Are aminoglyosides water soluble?
  3. What pH are aminoglyosides most active in?
  4. What were the original aminoglycosides (streptomycin) used to treat?
  5. Why is streptomycin no longer really used for TB?
    Resistance, and toxicities
  6. Can aminoglycosides treat aerobic infections?
    Yes, but few and not well, need to be used in combo with a cell wall inhibitors like a PCN or vanco to treat G+
  7. What major structural similarities do all aminoglycosides have?
    Amino sugars and glycosdic linkages
  8. Aminoglycoside transport across the inner membrane requires what condictions?
  9. Aminoglycosides enter through pores in the G- membrane by active transport or diffusion?
  10. Why are aerobic conditions neceeassry for aminoglycoside activity?
    Because after they diffuse through the outer membrane, they need oxidative metabolism to maintain an electrical gradient for them to actively be pumped into the cell.
  11. What charge do aminoglycosides have on them?
  12. What charge is the inside of a cell?
  13. Can aminoglycosides kill G- bacteria in an abscess?
    Not usually, because the abscess usually has anaerobic conditions
  14. Are aminoglycosides bactericidal or bacteriostatic?
  15. What is the MOA of aminoglycosides?
    Inhibiting protein synthesis by freezing initiation, early termination and causing misreads of mRNA and Bind ribosomes at junction of 50S and 30S (more to the 30S), cause membrane fissions by incorporation into it
  16. Can aminoglycosides be taken with Mg and Ca?
    No they inhibit absorption
  17. How have bacteria conferred resistance to aminoglycosides?
    Changing the ribosomes and production of enzymes that cause acetylation , phosphorylation or adenylation, inhibition of transport
  18. What are the routes of administration for aminoglycosides?
    IM, IV and oral (oral not used frequently)
  19. Do aminoglycosides get into the eye or cross the BBB?
  20. How are aminoglycosides excreted?
    Rapidly, unchanged in the urine (glomerular filtration)
  21. Where do aminoglycosides concentrate?
    In the kidneys
  22. Why are aminoglycosides nephrotoxic?
    They are concentrated unchanged in the urine/proximal tubule, they are positively charged so they bind to phospholipids in the epithelium, cause proteinuria, release of cellular enzymes and myeloid bodies in lysosomes
  23. When dosing aminoglycosides, would you use actual body weight or IBW and why?
    IBW, because they are extracellular distributed and you do not want to cause overdose