Fallacies

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Author:
mgalang
ID:
258570
Filename:
Fallacies
Updated:
2014-01-27 02:29:28
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Logic
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Logic-Fallacies
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  1. Fallacies of Language: Equivocation
    Using a word with two different senses:

    “Fire is god. Jim got fired. Therefore, Jim is god.”
  2. Fallacies of Language: Amphiboly
    Being unclear in syntax:

    “Once I worshipped fire wearing a hat.”
  3. Fallacies of Language: Accent
    Being unclear in the stressed word:

    • “We didn’t start the fire!” vs. “We didn’t start the fire!”
    • vs. “We didn’t start the fire!”
  4. Fallacies of Diversion: Attacking the Man (ad hominem)
    • Arguing against someone’s personality instead of their
    • argument:

    “What do you mean fire is god? You’re ugly.”
  5. Fallacies of Diversion: Poisoning the Well
    • Pre-emptively attacking the supposed motivations of the
    • argument:

    • “Whoever disagrees with the following is a traitor to the
    • Persian empire: fire is god.”
  6. Fallacies of Diversion: “You’re Another” (tu quoque)
    Accusing your opponent of the same mistake:

    • “Yes, I worship fire, but you’re just as illogical as I am
    • in worshipping water.”
  7. Fallacies of Diversion: Genetic Fallacy
    Attacks the supposed motivations of the argument:

    • “You only think fire is god because the Persian government
    • told you so.”
  8. Fallacies of Diversion: Appeal to Authority (ad verecundiam)
    Quoting an irrelevant source as authoritative:

    • “Ben Affleck likes the Zoroastrian religion, so it must be
    • true.”
  9. Fallacies of Diversion: Appeal to Force (ad baculum)
    Using violence to try to prove its point:

    • “If you don’t agree with Zoroastrianism, you will be slapped
    • in the face.”
  10. Fallacies of Diversion: Appeal to Pity (ad misericordiam)
    Confusing the sadness of something with a valid argument against it.

    “I remember when the water-worshippers killed my father. It was devastating for me and my family. Therefore, fire is god.”
  11. Fallacies of Diversion:Appeal to Shame (ad ignominiam)
    Confusing the shamefulness of something with a valid argument against it.

    “What do you mean you don’t worship fire? Don’t you realize that water-worshippers are a bunch of toothless rednecks?”
  12. Fallacies of Diversion: Appeal to Popularity (ad populum; “bandwagon fallacy”)
    Holding a view is correct only because many believe it:

    “Everyone thinks that fire is god. It must be true.”
  13. Fallacies of Diversion: Appeal to Ignorance (ad ignorantiam; “shifting the burden of
    proof”)
    Holding an implausible claim and asking the opponent to prove otherwise:

    “Can you prove that fire is not, in fact, god?”
  14. Fallacies of Oversimplification: Accident (dicto simpliciter)
    Confusing substance with accident, or essence with qualification:

     “Plato is different from Socrates. Socrates is a man.Therefore, Plato is not a man.”
  15. Fallacies of Oversimplification: Composition and Division
    Confusing a whole with a part:

    “Each of the molecules in my body is microscopic. Therefore, my body is microscopic.”
  16. Fallacies of Oversimplification: False Dilemma (“false dichotomy;” “The Black and White Fallacy”)
    Falsely limits the number of options:

    “Either fire is god or water is god.”
  17. Fallacies of Argumentation: Non Sequitur (“does not follow”)
    Making any conclusion that is not necessary from the premises:

    “My pants are green. Therefore, fire is god.”
  18. Fallacies of Argumentation: Circular Reasoning (petitio principii; “begging the question”)
    Assuming what you want to prove:

    “Of course the Zoroastrian religion is true: all the Magi believe it and they’re appointed by the fire god!”
  19. Fallacies of Argumentation: Complex Question
    Asking what appears to be one question which is in fact more than one:

    “Have you finally admitted to yourself the truth that fire is god?”
  20. Fallacies of Argumentation: Slippery Slope
    • Showing consequences to the argument that are not necessary
    • or relevant:

    “If we stop worshiping fire, the Persian empire will lose its identity, its people will be scattered, the Romans will attack us and we will all be destroyed.”
  21. Fallacies of Induction: Hasty Generalization
    Making a conclusion with insufficient examples:

    “Those four Persians believe that fire is god. Therefore, all Persians do.”
  22. Fallacies of Induction: False Cause (post hoc ergo propter hoc)
    Claiming that something preceding something else must be its cause:

    “I prayed to fire and my son got better. Therefore, theprayer healed my son.”
  23. Fallacies of Induction: Argument from Silence
    Concluding that someone agrees or disagrees when they say nothing.

    • “I asked Jimmy if he believed in fire and he didn’t say anything, so he must be an atheist.”
    • “I asked Jimmy if he didn’t believe in fire and he didn’t say anything, so he must.”
  24. Fallacies of Induction: Selective Evidence
    Only referring to the parts of the evidence that support your claim.

    “Fire is god because it cannot be destroyed by wood, but rather destroys it” (ignoring the fact that it can be destroyed by water).
  25. Fallacies of Procedure: Red Herring (“changing the subject”)
    Causing an irrelevant distraction to the argument:

    “Look at how ugly those ice sculptures are. Fire must be god.”
  26. Fallacies of Procedure: Straw Man
    Setting up a false opponent; oversimplifying the opponent’s position:

    “So you think water is god just because it’s wet? That’s stupid.”

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