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What is leading cause of death in the Us for persons aged 1-44?
What are the three main components of the circulatory system?
Heart, blood vessels, and blood
To provide a sufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body, the heart must pump at an adequate _____ and _____.
Rate and Rhythm
What are the major types of blood vessels?
Arteries, Capillaries, Veins.
What do arteries do?
What takes oxygen rich blood away from the heart?
What supplys every cell of the body?
What do Capillaries do?
Where does vital exchange of oxygen and nutrients occur?
Capillaries and body cells are where what occurs?
What do veins do?
What takes oxygen poor blood back to the heart?
What is perfusion?
What is known as the supply of oxygen to and removal of wastes from the cells and tissues of the body as a result of the flow of blood through the capillaries.
What is Hypoperfusion?
What is the inability of the body to adequately circulate blood to the body's cells to supply them with oxygen and nutrients?
What is hemorrhage?
Bleeding especially severe bleeding.
What is the major cause of shock?
If enough blood volume is lost what will not occur?
Perfusion of all cells will not occur if what?
What are the most sensitive to inadequate perfusion?
Cells and Tissues of the brain, spinal cord, and the kidneys.
Hemorrhage is classified as?
External or internal
What are the functions of blood?
Transportation of gases, Nutrition, excretion, protection, regulation.
What are examples of blood thinners?
Coumadin and plavix are what?
External bleeding may be classified as what?
Arterial, Venous, or capillary bleeding.
Manifestation of arterial bleeding
color flow controllability
Bright red, rapid profuse spurting, difficult to control is what type of bleeding?
Manifestation of venous bleeding
Color, Flow, Controllability
What type of bleeding is dark red, steady flow, and easy to control?
What can be a problem with venous bleeding?
Sucking in of debris or air bubbles can be a problem with what type of bleeding?
Manifestations of capillary bleeding?
Color, Flow, controllability
moderately colored, Slow oozing, and easy to control is characteristic of what type of bleeding?
What type of bleeds are easily contaminated, which leads to infection?
Severity of the bleeding dependent on?
Relation of blood lost in relation to the physical size of the patient, and dependent on the patient's condition.
What amount of blood loss is considered significant for
- 1 liter-Adult
- 500 cc- Child
- 150 cc- Infant.
If the patient even begin to exhibit signs and symptoms of shock, then what?
Bleeding is considered serious.
What is the body's natural response to bleeding?
Constriction of the injured blood vessel and clotting.
What are the general signs of shock?
Altered mental status, pale cool clammy skin, nausea and vomiting, and vital sign changes are signs of?
What are the vital sign changes in shock?
These are S&S of what?
- PULSE UP, WEAK AND THREADY
- RESP UP SHALLOW AND LABORED
- BP LAST TO CHANGE
- NARROWING OF PULSE PRESSURE MAY ALSO OCCUR. (SYSTOLIC DIASTOLIC GET CLOSER)
What happens to pulse in shock?
Pulse goes up, gets weak and thready.
What happens to respirations in shock?
Increase and becomes more shallow and labored.
What happens to BP with shock?
Last to change, BP drops, narrowing of pulse pressure may occur.
Patient assessment and care always begin with what?
What are major methods of controlling external bleeding?
- Direct pressure, Elevation, Pressure points.
- Splinting, cold application, pasg. Tourniquit last resort.
Blood loss decreases what?
What is the most common and effective way to control external bleeding?
By applying direct pressure to the wound.
How do you apply direct pressure?
- 1.) Apply pressure until controlled.
- 2.) Hold pressure firmly until bleeding controlled.
- 3.) Once controlled bandage dressing firmly in place to form pressure dressing.
- 4.)Never remove dressing once it has been placed on wound.
What is a pressure dressing?
bulky dressing held in position with a tightly wrapped bandage to apply pressure to help control bleeding.
This is known as what?
What is process of controlling bleeding?
- 1.)Apply direct pressure
- 2.) Elevate above level of the heart
- 3.) if wound continues to bleed, apply additional dressing over the first one.
- 4.) Bandage dressing in place.
- 5.) if wound continues to bleed, apply pressure to pressure point.
After applying a bandage what do you do?
Check for distal pulses
When should elevation not be done?
When musculoskeletal injuries, impaled obects, or spine injury.
How high should elevation be done?
Above the level of the heart.
What is a pressure point?
Where large artery lies close to the surface of the body and directly over a bone.
When should pressure point method of controlling bleeding be used?
After direct pressure and elevation have failed.
Bleeding associated with _________ may be controlled by proper splinting of the injury.
Bleeding associated with musculoskeletal injury may be controlled by _______.
Air splints are most effective for what types of bleeding?
Venous and capillary
How does the cold application work?
It minimizes swelling and reduced the bleeding by constricting the blood vessels. Will also reduce pain at the injury site.
What is a tourniquet?
A device that closes off all blood flow to and from an extremity.
The use of a tourniquet is used as a..?
What can be side effects of using a tourniquet?
Permanent damage to nerves, muscles, and blood vessels, and may even cause the loss of the extremity.
Tourniquets are most often used on what?
Rough edged amputations
Once applied should a tourniquet ever be removed?