History Unit 1&2 Test Mesopotamia and Egypt.txt

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History Unit 1&2 Test Mesopotamia and Egypt.txt
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    • What are the characteristics of a civilization?
    • Occupational Specialization
    • Centralized Government
    • Agricultural Intensification
    • State Religion
    • Class Structure
    • Development of Science & Writing
    • Merchants and Trade
  1. What was the social structure of Mesopotamia?
    Hierarchy:

    • Gods
    • Rulers - Kings, Chief Priests, High Palace officials
    • Nobility
    • Free Clients
    • Workers (produce & trade)
    • Slaves
  2. What was the style of writing the Sumerians created?
    Cuneiform
  3. What were the first technological developments created?
    • Writing
    • Mathematics
    • Metallurgy
    • Wheel
    • Simple machines
    • Irrigation systems
    • Pottery
  4. What were the 5 most prominent gods in Mesopotamian religion?
    • Enlil
    • Ishtar
    • An
    • Enki
    • Shamash
  5. Which Mesopotamian civilization was responsible for having the oldest recorded religion in history?
    The Assyrians
  6. What are the four Mesopotamian civilizations?
    • Sumerians
    • Akkadians
    • Babylonians
    • Assyrians
  7. What was the most common used language for Mesopotamia?
    Akkadian
  8. What were the two key concepts in life for the Babylonians?
    Law and justice
  9. Which Mesopotamian civilization is said to be the most dominant force with the strongest army?
    Assyrians
  10. In what Mesopotamian civilization did Sargon rule?
    Akkad
  11. Which Mesopotamian civilization(s) did King Hammurabi rule?
    Babylonians and took over akkad and assyria
  12. Fill in the blank: the law of _____ was prominent in the lives of the Babylonians.
    Hammurabi
  13. Who ruled the Assyrians?
    King Assurnasirpal
  14. Who reunited Mesopotamia and established the first true empire?
    King Assurnasirpal for the Assyrians
  15. Where was the only place that women could be in charge?
    At home
  16. Who was in charge of the family?
    The father
  17. What kinds of things did the Sumerians export in trade?
    • Barley
    • Wool
    • Cloth
    • Metals
    • Timber
    • Copper
    • Pearls
    • Ivory
  18. What is the "Fertile Crescent" a nickname for?
    Mesopotamia
  19. Mesopotamia lied inbetween which two rivers?
    The Euphrates and the Tigris
  20. Mesopotamia lasted for approximately how many years?
    3000
  21. Geographic conditions of Mesopotamia included...
    • Little rainfall
    • Hot and dry climate
    • Intense flooding of the rivers in spring
  22. What is a natural levee?
    Embankments produced by build-up of sediment over thousands of years of flooding
  23. Levees provided what?
    Protection amongst other things
  24. Where were the gods worshipped in Mesopotamia?
    Huge temples called ziggurats
  25. The polytheistic religion consisted of how many gods and demigods?
    Over 3600
  26. Kingship believed to be created by the...
    Gods
  27. Kings and priests acted as _______, telling people what the _____ wanted them to do.
    • Interpreters
    • Gods
  28. A ziggurat is a...
    Large temple dedicated to the god of the city
  29. What is a famous ziggurat?
    Tower of Babel
  30. The political structure of ancient Mesopotamia was an early form of...
    Democracy
  31. What led to the emergence of warriors as leaders? (Mesopotamia)
    Frequent wars
  32. What was the basis of government in Mesopotamia?
    Co-operation
  33. What were the three main crops the Sumerians produced?
    • Barley
    • Dates
    • Sesame seeds
  34. First city of the world is
    Sumer
  35. Which civilization developed the trade system?
    Sumerians
  36. Who controlled land on behalf of gods?
    Priests
  37. Were the Sumerians successful in uniting lower Mesopotamia?
    No
  38. Who unified lower Mesopotamia first?
    Sargon the Great
  39. Who conquered the Akkadians?
    Invading barbarians
  40. After Akkad, who reunited Mesopotamia?
    Babylonians
  41. The Babylon economy was based on what two goods?
    Wool/cloth and agriculture
  42. What was hammurabis legacy?
    His law code
  43. Hammurabi received his authority from which god?
    Shamash
  44. The Hammurabi code resembled the concept of..
    'An eye for an eye'
  45. What was one unfair thing about Hammurabi's law code?
    Consequences for crimes depended on one's rank in society
  46. Which city became an important trading and political centre?
    Assur
  47. In Assur, _____ dominated for 890 years until _______.
    • Persian Empire
    • Alexander the Great
  48. Who were the only ones who could read and write and served priests, record keepers, and accountants?
    Scribes
  49. What is the first known work of great literature and epic poem?
    Gilgamesh
  50. A Mesopotamian king would consider himself as a living representative of a...
    God
  51. Ancient Egypt grew up along what river?
    The Nile
  52. The Nile river was _________.
    Predictable
  53. What structure did the Egyptians create to protect tombs from grave robbers?
    Pyramids
  54. What are the 3 eras of Ancient Egypt?
    • The Old Kingdom
    • The Middle Kingdom
    • The New Kingdom
  55. The Old Kingdom was the...
    Age of the pyramids
  56. The Middle Kingdom was a time when...
    Egypt expanded politically and economically
  57. The New Kingdom was...
    The Golden Age of Egypt
  58. Why did Egypt become a powerful united nation?
    Because they had a centrql government strong enough to command the country
  59. Two parts of Egypt
    Upper and lower
  60. Which king is believed to be the first person to unit Egypt?
    King Menes
  61. In the Old Kingdom, people came to view Pharaohs as...
    Living gods
  62. How did the pharaohs show their power?
    By creating pyramids
  63. Who were the foreign rulers of Egypt in the Middle Kingdom?
    The Hyksos
  64. What was the primary goal in Egypt?
    Stability
  65. Most important geographic influence on Egypt?
    The Nile
  66. Name two other regions in Egypt besides the Nile Valley that were cultivated and settled.
    • The Nile Delta
    • The Faiyum
  67. What protected Egypt from outside invasion?
    The Eastern and Western isolated desserts
  68. What was Egypt's major outlet for trade?
    The Mediterranean Sea
  69. What was the key factor in the exchange of cultures?
    Trade
  70. The Egyptians measured time according to the...
    Flooding of the Nile
  71. Who is Horus?
    The ancient Egyptian god of the sky
  72. Who is Osiris?
    The god of the dead
  73. What did Isis represent?
    Fertility
  74. Who was Anubis?
    God of the afterlife
  75. Which part of the body did Anubis weigh to grant entry into the afterlife?
    The heart
  76. In ancient Egypt, what 2 things did the gods and goddesses represent?
    Natural characteristics and human characteristics
  77. What was the Egyptian idea of the spirit and what were they used for?
    • The Ka: remained in the heart until after death, when the spirit and the body separated
    • The Ba: the personality or character of the individual
  78. Comparisons between Mesopotamian and Egyptian religion
    • They were both polytheistic
    • They both believed that they must take their treasured possessions with them into the afterlife
  79. In ancient egypt, elegant clothes were limited to...
    The upper class
  80. 3 principal industries in ancient Egypt
    • Manufacturing goods
    • Export markets
    • Mining
  81. The Nile allowed Egyptians to...
    Share culture and trade items
  82. Who was the first female Pharaoh?
    Hatshepsut
  83. What was the hierarchy/class structure of ancient Egypt?
    • Pharaoh
    • Nobility
    • Workers
  84. Through which line were Pharaohs determined?
    The female line (matrilineal descent)
  85. The act of removing body hair, called sugaring, was reserved for who?
    The upper class
  86. What did noble women in ancient Egypt do for leisure?
    Oversaw household and cared for children
  87. 3 legal rights women in Ancient Egypt had
    • They could own property
    • They could act as a judge
    • Ex-wives collected alimony
  88. What did female workers do?
    • Made linens
    • Scribes
    • Collected taxes
    • Kept records
    • Accountants
  89. What are two similarities between the men and women of ancient.Egypt?
    Both were paid the same wages and both hunted
  90. Early Egyptian belief about the afterlife
    Afterlife closely resembled the life that dwellers along the Nile.River enjoyed on earth
  91. Where were the bodies of the dead preserved at first? (Egypt)
    Low desert near the Nile
  92. Who was Re?
    The sun-god
  93. Which god was associated with every living king in Ancient Egypt?
    Horus
  94. Which god was associated with every deceased king in Ancient Egypt?
    Osiris
  95. The cycles of death and rebirth were _____ for the ________.
    • Goals
    • Divine kings
  96. What was the most important goal for a non-royal Egyptian?
    • To become an akh (an equipped spirit)
    • -building tomb, storing treasure, having knowledge of the afterlife
  97. The pharaohs were seen as descendants of which god
    Re
  98. What is bureaucracy
    Officials in the government appointed by the pharaoh
  99. Who was the highest ranking official in Egypt and pharaohs deputy?
    The Vizier
  100. Who oversaw estates?
    Steward
  101. Who oversaw the daily affairs of the palace?
    The Chamberlain
  102. Who supervised the palace guards?
    First Herald
  103. Who ruled each province in Egypt
    A Nomarch
  104. How many provinces did Egypt have and what were they called officially
    42, nomes
  105. Laws of Egypt were not as extensive a code as that of _________.
    Mesopotamia
  106. When did Egyptian civilization reach its apex?
    During the New Kingdon
  107. How many women have ever ruled Egypt?
    4
  108. Which female pharaoh ruled longest?
    Hatshepsut
  109. Hatshepsut's reign has been decribed as...
    Peaceful, stable, and prosperous
  110. Who was Tuthmosis III?
    Hatshepsut's stepson who ruled Egypt after her
  111. What was evidence of wealth during Tuthmosis' reign?
    The building activity
  112. Egypt had a rep for...
    Having one of the best trained armies in the Near East
  113. One reason why invasions on Egypt were appealing
    Twas a fertile country
  114. Which pharaoh tried to reform Egyptian religion?
    Akhenaton (previous name Amonhotep IV)
  115. Which god did Akhenaton worship?
    Aton
  116. The first monotheist?
    Akhenaton
  117. Akhenaton sucked because...
    • Refused to fill traditional role of the pharaoh
    • Neglected Egypt
    • Was a butt
  118. Who was king Tutankhamun and what did he do
    • Akhenaton's son
    • He sought to restore stabilty of Egypt by halting religious revolution and reversing his father's changes
  119. Who was Ramses II
    Another king after Tut
  120. What was the most significant factor in Egyptian culture and society?
    Religion
  121. Society whose existence is closely linked to nature
    Egypt
  122. Who were the most important gods to the Egyptians?
    Those responsible for creation
  123. Who was Thoth?
    Another god of the dead
  124. What curriculum was offered in a scribal school in Egypt?
    • Math
    • Literature
    • Ethics
    • History
  125. Who served in bureaucracy?
    Important families like.nobles and.military leaders

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