Biochemistry

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ecav
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25864
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Biochemistry
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2010-07-09 14:37:06
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Biochemistry
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National Board Biochemistry
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  1. Which of the following involves the transfer of one or more negatively charged particles or electrons?
    Oxidative-reduction
  2. Which of the following has the ability to increase the hydrogen ion concentration in water?
    acids
  3. Which of the following has the ability to lower the hydrogen ion concentration in water?
    bases
  4. Which type of bonds are between amino acids?
    peptide bonds
  5. Which of the following involves the transfer of one or more positively charged units, protons, or hydrogen ions?
    acid-base reaction
  6. Which of the following is characteristic of a spontaneous reaction?
    Gibb's free energy is negative
  7. How many bases are found on the codon?
    3
  8. Acetyl CoA Carboxylase catalyzes the conversion of...
    Malonyl CoA (takes place in the cytoplasm)
  9. Which of the following is a product of Pyruvate and may enter the TCA cycle?
    Acetyl CoA
  10. Purine Nitrogen is derived from ____ and is excreted as ____.
    amino acid, uric acid
  11. A ___ contains components that enable the solution to resist large changes in the pH when either acids are bases are added.
    Buffer solution
  12. Which of the following refer to a collection of organic molecules of varying chemical composition, grouped on the basis of their solubility in nonpolar solvents?
    lipids
  13. Which of the following are lipids?
    • Fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated)
    • Glycerides (glycerol-containing lipids)
    • Nonglyceride lipids (sphingolipids, steroids, waxes)
    • Complex lipids (lipoprotiens and glycolipids)
  14. Which of the following is the formula for Palmitic Acid?
    CH3 (CH2) 14COOH
  15. Which of the following if the formula for Stearic Acid?
    CH3 (CH2) 16COOH
  16. tRNA is responsible for which of the following?
    supplying amino acids to complete a specific protein
  17. Which of the following relates to the hydronium ion concentration or the degree of acidity or basicity of a solution?
    pH
  18. Which of the following molecules is Amphoteric (can act as a base/acid)?
    any Amino Acid
  19. Which glycosidic bonds are found in glycogen?
    alpha 1,4 and alpha 1,6
  20. Which of the following depicts reverse transcriptase?
    RNA--> DNA
  21. Lack of vitamin B12 results in a deficiency of
    methionine
  22. Which amino acid is converted in the intestine?
    tryptophan
  23. which of the following is the process where by fatty acids react with alcohols to form esters and water?
    esterification
  24. Which carbon source supplies the glycerol portion of triglyceride for lipogenesis?
    Acetyl CoA
  25. Which of the following is a 4-carbon glucose precursor?
    fumerate
  26. Which is not a product of the pentose phosphate pathway?
    ATP
  27. Which of the following is a neuropolysaccharide?
    hyaluronic acid
  28. Which of the following characteristics distinguishes starch from cellulose?
    starch is digestible by humans, cellulose is not
  29. the biosynthesis of cholesterol begins with____.
    acetyl CoA
  30. The reductive steps of fatty acid biosynthesis require
    NADPH
  31. Which of the following is the final stage for complete metabolism of fat?
    tricarboxylic acid cycle
  32. Which of the following is a significant intermediate in the Cytoplasmic Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids?
    Malonyl CoA
  33. Free radicals are highly reactive substances that result from the ___ of lipids.
    peroxidation
  34. Which of the following are components of triglycerides?
    fatty acids and glycerol
  35. Which of the following is a function of prostaglandins?
    • stimulation of smooth muscle
    • regulation of steroid biosynthesis
    • inhibition of gastric secretion
    • inhibition of hormone sensitive lipases
    • regulation of nerve transmission
    • sensitization of pain
    • mediation of the inflammatory response
  36. Homocystine is a product of the de-methylation of ____.
    methionine
  37. Which of the following is not an effect of the hydrogenation of vegetable oils?
    lowered melting point
  38. To generate an unsaturated fatty acid, a saturated fatty acid must undergo____.
    oxidation
  39. Following the action of lipoprotein lipase the very low-density lipoprotein remnant becomes___
    low density lipoprotien (LDL)
  40. Cholesterol is not a component of _____.
    peanuts
  41. Which of the following lipids comprise the majority of dietary fats?
    triglycerides
  42. oxaloacetate is the alpha keto analog of ___
    aspartic acid
  43. The catabolism of heme results in___
    bilirubin
  44. Which of the following processes convert Pyruvate to alanine
    transamination
  45. Which of the following nutrients forms a co-enzyme, which is used directly for amino acid Transamination?
    Pyridoxine
  46. Which of the following is a Catacholemine synthesized from tyrosine?
    epinephrine
  47. How many essential amino acids are aromatic?
    phenylalanine and tryptophan
  48. thyroxine is derived from ____.
    tyrosine (also epinephrine)
  49. the enzyme which catalases the interconversation of UDP-Galactose with UDP Glucose is ___.
    epimerase
  50. An enzyme that occurs in the liver but not in the brain or muscle tissue is ____.
    glucose-6-phosphatase
  51. The quaternary structure of hemoglobin refers to the___.
    association of alpha and beta subunits.
  52. Which of the following amino acids have the greatest positive net charge at normal pH in the blood?
    cystine
  53. daily protein allowance for a person who weighs 80 kilograms is about ___
    64g
  54. Which of the following is synthesized from pantothenic acid?
    Co-ASH
  55. A pyridine-linked dehydrogenase contains which enzyme?
    FAD
  56. Which fatty acids does the body using Acetyl CoA residue synthesize?
    stearic acid
  57. What are the 3 essential fatty acids?
    aracodonic, linoleic, and linolinec
  58. Oxidative Phosphorylation (ETS) generates approximately ___% of the ATP produced from glycolysis.
    90%
  59. alpha ketogluerate is an intermediate in the ____ cycle.
    TCA
  60. In the following diagram of the tRNA, what portion carries the amino acid?
    position1
  61. A loss of lipoprotein lipase results in ____
    high chylomicron levels after a high fat meal
  62. which of the following is an intermediate in the formation of palmitic acid from acetyl coA?
    malonyl coA
  63. ____ is the secondary messenger for epinephrine.
    cAMP
  64. Which of the following is a sulfur containing amino acid?
    cystine
  65. Which of the following is initially involved in cholesterol synthesis?
    acetyl coA
  66. Serotonin and niacin come from which amino acid?
    tryptophan
  67. Which of the following elements bind to ATP and make a negative complex?
    magnesium
  68. A deficiency in essential amino acids create a ____ nitrogen balance due to ____ urea production and excretion.
    negative, increased
  69. Dietary intake of 10g of protein provides approximately how many kilocalories?
    40kcal
  70. Which sugar is a ketohexose?
    fructose
  71. Which of the following is the end product in anaerobic glycolysis of skeletal muscle?
    lactate
  72. Which of the following hormones contain sulphur?
    insulin
  73. Which of the following is an endogenously produced carbohydrate polymerase comprised of repeating disaccharide units that contain glucosamide?
    hyluronic acid
  74. Which of the following carbohydrates (CHO) is a major component of DNA?
    deoxynucleic acid
  75. UDP Glucose is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of which of the following?
    glycogen
  76. linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid in humans due to the body's inability to synthesize which fatty acid?
    omega 6 fatty acid
  77. DNA synthesis is called which of the following?
    replication
  78. Which of the following substances inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis?
    cholesterol (due to negative feedback)
  79. Which of the following enzymes catalyze the degradation of purines?
    • xanthine oxidase
    • (hydro xanthine --> xanthine --> uric acid)
  80. Lactase dehydrogenase isoenzymes have the same ___.
    type of co enzymes
  81. what causes the formation of pyruvate and oxaloacetate from alanine and aspartame respectively?
    transamination (requires vitamin B6 pyrodoxine)
  82. Which of the following is a high-energy compound?
    glucose-6-phosphate
  83. ornithine is an intermediate in which cycle?
    • urea
    • (urea cycle = arco --> AR=arginine, C= cytroline, O=ornithine)
  84. Which of the following hormones inhibit fat mobilization?
    insuline (anabolic) (glucose is catabolic)
  85. The enzymatic hydrolysis of ___ produces maltose
    starch
  86. which of the following carbohydrates (CHO) bi-product is derived from the Hexose Monophosphate Shunt?
    ribose-5-phosphate
  87. What is the major extracellular cation that transmits impulses along an axon?
    sodium (extracellular) potassium (intracellular)
  88. the major role of vitamin D is the regulation of absorption and metabolism of which of the following minerals?
    calcium and phosphate (in intestine)
  89. most amino acid metabolism requires a co-enzyme provided by the bioactive form of which of the following nutrients?
    pyridoxine (B6)
  90. Which of the following mechanisms cause the greatest loss of sterols?
    intestinal excretion
  91. poor appetite, increased pyruvic acid levels in the blood, irritability, tingling sensation and in-coordination of the arms and legs are due to which vitamin deficiency?
    thiamin (B1)
  92. Hydrolysis of lactose yields which of the following?
    galactose and glucose
  93. Which co-enzyme is used with glutathione peroxidase?
    selenium
  94. a diet high in polyunsaturated fat needs what vitamin to combine to prevent free radicals?
    tocopherol (vitamin E)
  95. antioxidants are ______
    fat soluble vitamins______
    • antioxidants are A,C, E and S
    • fat soluble vitamins A,D,E,K
  96. NADH + H + 1/2 O2 molecule forms NAD+ ____. Which od the following completes the formula?
    water (H2O)
  97. Which of the following contains an ester bond?
    triglycerides
  98. Which hormone is responsible for glycogenolysis in the liver?
    glucagon (catabolic)
  99. Phosphate groups are transferred to other compounds from which enzyme?
    kinase
  100. cereal is low in which amino acid?
    • lysine
    • (lysine --> carnitine --> brings fatty acid into mitochondria for beta-oxidation)
  101. Ingested cholesterol travels from the digestive tract to the lover in the form of ___
    chylomicrons
  102. which of the following bonds link the nucleotides in a DNA strand?
    covalent bonds
  103. the major product of beta-oxidation is ___
    acetyl- coA
  104. the peptide linkage of any peptide bond is between the ___ of the amino acid and the ___ of another amino acid.
    carbon, nitrogen
  105. What are the constituents of a nucleotide?
    • Nitrogen base, pentose, phosphate group
    • (nucleosides do not have the phosphate group)****
  106. Glycogen is a polysaccaride composed of many monosacharides held together by
    alpha 1,4 and alpha 1,6 glycosidic bonds
  107. Epinehrine causes the hydrolysis of glycogen. What will cause the cessation of this process and return to the synthesis of glycogen?
    increased glucose-6-phosphate
  108. Which of the following substances yields the most energy per gram?
    fat
  109. gluconeogenesis in the liver does not include which of the following?
    citrate synthesis (in the Kreb cycle)
  110. Which of the following substances is most highly oxidized?
    oxaloacetate
  111. dietary lipids usually circulate in the body as ____
    chylomicrons
  112. ___ is an amino acid precursor of carnitine.
    lysine
  113. what nitrogenous base is found in DNA but not RNA?
    thyamine (RNA --> Uracil)
  114. From which vitamin is FAD derived?
    Riboflavin (NAD is from Niacin)
  115. Which is a ketone body produced from fasting?
    beta-hydroxybutarate
  116. What are the three different ketone bodies?
    • Acetoacetate
    • Acetone
    • Beta-hydroxybutarate
  117. Which amino acid is not optically active?
    glycine
  118. which nitrogen source provides the majority of nitrogen found in purines?
    glutamine
  119. glycerol is converted to glucose by which process?
    gluconeogenesis (conversion of non-carbohydrate sources)
  120. carbon atoms for fatty acid biosynthesis are transported across the mitochondrial membrane into the cytoplasm in the form of __.
    citrate
  121. Which type of bond does ATPase break?
    anhydride
  122. which of the following is responsible for producing endogenous triglycerides?
    VLDL
  123. how do humans eliminate cholesterol?
    excretion in feces
  124. which of the following is a polypeptide hormone?
    insulin (it also contains sulphur)
  125. what type of bonds are between amino acids?
    peptide
  126. Acetyl CoA Carboxylase catalyzes the conversion of acetyl CoA to ___
    malonyl CoA
  127. Which of the following is a product of pyruvate and may enter the TCA cycle?
    Acetyl CoA
  128. Which of the following is tRNA responsible for?
    supplying amino acids to complete a specific protein chain
  129. which of the following glycosidic bonds are found in glycogen?
    alpha 1,4 and alpha 1,6
  130. Which of the following depicts reverse transcriptase?
    RNA --> DNA
  131. Lack of vitamin b12 results in a deficiency of which of the following?
    methionine
  132. which amino acid is converted in the intestine?
    tryptophan
  133. Which of the following carbon sources supply the glycerol portion of triglyceride for lipogenesis?
    acetyl coA
  134. Which of the following is a 4 carbon glucose precusor?
    fumerate
  135. Which of the following is not a product of the pentose phosphate pathway?
    ATP
  136. Which of the following is a Mucopolysaccharide?
    hyaluronic acid and chrondroitin sulfate
  137. Which of the following characteristics distinguishes starch from cellulose?
    starch is digested by human enzymes and cellulose is not
  138. the biosynthesis of cholesterol begins with___
    acetyl coA (HMG CoA reductase is the limiting enzyme)
  139. the reductive steps in fatty acid biosynthesis require____.
    NADPH
  140. Which of the following is the last step in the complete metabolism of fat?
    TCA cycle
  141. which of the following is a significant intermediate in the cytoplasm of fatty acids?
    malonyl CoA
  142. Free radicals are highly reactive substances, which result from the ___ of lipids.
    peroxidation
  143. Which of the following are components of triglycerides?
    fatty acids and glycerol
  144. homocysteine is a product of the demethylation of ___
    methione
  145. Which of the following is not an effect of the hydrogenation of vegetable oils?
    lowering the melting point
  146. to generate an unsaturated fatty acid, a saturated fatty acid must undergo __.
    oxidation
  147. following the action of lipoprotien lipase the VLDL remnant becomes____.
    LDL
  148. cholesterol is not a component of which of the following foods?
    peanuts
  149. which of the following lipids comprise the majority of dietary foods?
    triglycerides
  150. oxaloacetate is the alpha keto analog of ____.
    aspartic acid
  151. the catabolism of heme is found in the formation of ___
    bilibrubin
  152. Which of the following do not contribute directly to the total amino acid pool of the body?
    dietary nucleic acids
  153. which of the following processes convert pyruvic acid to alanine?
    transanimation
  154. which of the following nutrients forms a coenzyme, which is used directly for amino acid transamination?
    pyridoxine (B6)
  155. which of the following is a catecholamine synthesized from tyrosine?
    epinephrine
  156. How many amino acids are aromatic?
    phenylalanine and tryptophan
  157. Which of the following enzymes catalyze the interconversion of UPD-Galactose with UPD Glucose
    epimerase
  158. An enzyme that occurs in the liver but not in the brain or in muscle tissue is____
    glucose-6-phosphatse
  159. the quaternary structure of hemoglobin refers to which of the following?
    association of the alpha and beta subunits
  160. Which of the following amino acids has the greatest positive net charge at normal pH?
    cystine
  161. the daily protein for a person weighing 80kg is about ___ grams.
    8g of protein for every 10kg of body weight = 64g)
  162. Which of the following is synthesized from pantothenic acid?
    coA
  163. a pyridine-linked dehydrogenase contains which enzyme?
    FAD
  164. purine nitrogen is derived from ___ and excreted as ____.
    amino acid, uric acid
  165. transcription RNA (tRNA) is responsible for___.
    supplying amino acids to complete specific protein chains
  166. Which amino acid is converted to indol in the intestine?
    tryptophan (indol responsible for odor in feces)
  167. components of the ETC are located in which region of the cell?
    inner mitrochondrial membrane
  168. which of the following is a component of the ETC (electron transport chain)?
    ubiguinone
  169. which of the following is an active form of folic acid?
    tetrahydrofolate
  170. which of the following minerals is a component of cytochrome-B?
    iron
  171. The body converts B-carotene to retinol by which mechanism?
    oxidative lysis
  172. Which of the following processes bio-activates thiamine and pyroxidine?
    phophorylation
  173. the final stage of 1,25 dehydroxycholecalciferol (Vitamin D) occurs where?
    Kidney (first stage skin-->liver-->kidney)
  174. the production of purine nucleotides the formal group was provided by ____.
    vitamin B9
  175. What is synthesized by intestinal flora and becomes deficient due to antibiotic therapy and is a coenzyme for the carboxylation reaction?
    biotin
  176. NADPH contains which vitamin?
    niacin
  177. what vitamin is not valuable in preventing free radical damage in tissue?
    cyancobalanine (B12)
  178. which vitamin is required for the hydroxylation of the amino acid proline?
    ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
  179. the function of nonsense codons includes which of the following?
    stop ribosome action in allowing for protein release
  180. which is the form of iron that is most readily absorbed in the intestinal tract?
    ferrous
  181. which enzyme contains selenium?
    glutathione peroxidase
  182. phytate and oxalate inhibit the absorption of dietary____.
    calcium
  183. what is the primary end product of purine catabolism?
    urate--> uric acid
  184. liver, dried fruit and molasses all contain ___.
    iron
  185. during the production of purine nucleotides which of the following provide the formal group?
    tetrahydrofolate
  186. which of the following promote protein synthesis in humans?
    methionine
  187. which bonds hold complement base pairs of DNA double helix together?
    hydrogen
  188. the DNA of an organism, which contains 3% cytosine, contains ___% thiamine.
    40%
  189. which of the following is mRNA guided protein synthesis?
    translation
  190. transcription requires DNA to produce___
    RNA
  191. what is the primary end product of purine catabolism?
    urate --> uric acid
  192. what promotes protein synthesis in humans?
    methionine
  193. gluconeogensis with lipolysis but no protein synthesis will lead to____.
    starvation
  194. Which is a keto sugar?
    fructose= ketohexose
  195. Which of the following hormones promote glycogen syntehsis in the liver and muscles?
    insulin (anabolic)
  196. Under resting conditions which of the following stimulates the synthesis of hepatic glycogenic enzymes?
    insulin (anabolic)
  197. Epinephrine affects adipose tissue by promoting which of the following
    the release of fatty acids
  198. The high levels of ___ initiate the process of fat metabolism in adipose.
    epinephrine (specifically with fat metabolism)
  199. epinephrine is synthesized and secreted principally by the ___
    adrenal medulla (same as post ganglionic sympathetics)
  200. the biosynthesis of testosterone utilizes ___
    cholesterol
  201. which of the following hormones increase lipogenesis?
    insulin (anabolic)
  202. which of the following is a pentose?
    ribose
  203. A noncompetitive inhibitor of an allosteric enzyme affects which of the following?
    Vmax ONLY
  204. Which if the following is a polysaccharide?
    amylose
  205. which is the following is a hexose?
    fructose
  206. Which of the following would be affected by low levels of thiamine?
    krebs cycle
  207. which amino acid is both essential and aromatic?
    phenylalanine
  208. which of the following is a branch chain amino acid?
    valine
  209. What makes up the color in the iris of the eye?
    melaline
  210. myoglobin is considered to be___.
    a single polypeptide
  211. the formula for 2-deoxyribose is ____.
    C5 H10 O4
  212. which of the following has a transfer methal group?
    methionine
  213. how many kcalories are in 10g of fat?
    90
  214. D-glucos-1-phosphate + UTP = UDP Glucose +Pi?
    glycogensis
  215. alpha amylase is contained in the ___ which also secretes it
    pancrease
  216. Which enzyme catalyzes the oxidation-reduction reaction?
    dehydrogenase
  217. B-oxidation od an 18-carbon saturated fatty acid yields ___ molecules of acetyl-coA
    9
  218. under fasting conditions which of the following stimulate the synthesis of hepatic glucogenolysis enzymes?
    epinephrine
  219. which of the following is found in DNA but not in RNA
    thiamine
  220. which of the following does oxaloacetate become?
    aspartate
  221. which of the following is produced in the skin
    7-dehydrocholesterol (a form of Vitamin D)
  222. which of the following amino acids is deficient in corn?
    tryptophan and lysine
  223. which of the following is the most toxic fat-soluble vitamin?
    vitamin D
  224. which of the following amino acids is unnecessary if you have an ample amount of nicotinamide?
    tryptophan
  225. which of the following contains purines?
    guanine, hypoxanthine, uric acid
  226. which of the following enzymes transforms hypoxathine to uric acid?
    xanthine oxidase
  227. the symptoms of scurvy are produced by a ___
    hydroxyproline decrease
  228. which of the following is a nucleotide?
    adenosine-5-monophosphate
  229. which of the following substances transport fatty acids from cytoplasm to the mitochondria?
    carnitine
  230. what is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway?
    glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
  231. which of the following is derived from the pentose phosphate pathway?
    ribose
  232. the pentose phosphate pathway provides___ for fatty acid synthesis
    NADPH
  233. lipoprotein lipase has which of the following responsibilities?
    breaks down triglycerides
  234. during starvation glycerol can be converted to ___.
    glucose
  235. which of the following accomplishes the breakdown of triglycerides?
    hydrolysis = b-oxidation
  236. which of the following is a co-factor in the transamination reaction?
    B6 (pyrodoxine)
  237. which of the following is a co-factor in carboxylation reaction?
    biotin (think biotin= tin box --> carboxylation)
  238. which of the following causes beri beri?
    thiamin deficiency
  239. which of the following is a dehydrogenase reaction?
    oxidation-reduction
  240. which of the following has the most kcalories per gram?
    triglycerides
  241. which is not part of the urea cycle?
    citrate
  242. which of the following determines the charge of an amino acid?
    pH
  243. acid and base amino acids make a quartenary structure utilizing which type of bonds?
    ionic
  244. which of the following is the most abundant substance in the cell membrane?
    phosolipids
  245. which has the greatest protein density?
    HDL
  246. which food has the greatest concentration of cholesterol?
    eggs
  247. which unsaturated fatty acid contains 2 carbon- carbon double bonds?
    linoleic acid
  248. which coenzyme is responsible for converting methylmalonyl coA to succinyl coA?
    vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine)
  249. niacin and riboflavin are coenzymes involved in which type of reaction?
    oxidation-reduction
  250. hyperglycemia is closely associated with ___.
    diabetes mellitus
  251. which of the following is an essential fatty acid?
    linoleic acid
  252. which of the following is a coenzyme derived from riboflavin?
    NAD
  253. Cholesterol is converted to ___ by hepatic tissue.
    bile salts
  254. which of the following is a keto hexose?
    fructose
  255. which is an intermediate in the formation of palmitic acid from acetyl coA?
    malonyl CoA
  256. which of the following is not an antioxidant?
    cholecalciferol (vitamin D)
  257. which of the following is responsible for transportation of Fe in the blood?
    transferrin
  258. hemoglobin contains ___
    two binding sites for oxygen
  259. a 6 carbon can be converted to produce ___ acetyl coA
    2
  260. in gluconeogenesis pyruvate is carboxylated to ___.
    oxaloacetate
  261. what is the purpose of thiamin pyrophosphate in the pentose pathway?
    function with transaldolase
  262. which enzymatic activities are not in the pentose phosphate pathway?
    glucose-6-phosphatase
  263. which is found in gluconeogenesis but not in glycolysis?
    biotin
  264. niacin is derived from ___.
    tryptophan
  265. the substrate concentration, which gives us 1/2 Vmax, is ___.
    Km
  266. what is the characteristic of a competitive inhibitor?
    increased Km
  267. what is the function of tRNA?
    sequence of proteins
  268. pleated sheets are considered to be ____.
    secondary
  269. what type of bonds are seen with pleated sheets?
    hydrogen
  270. beta 1-4 bonds are found in which of the following?
    cellulose
  271. which of the following is the intermediate in cholesterol synthesis?
    HMG CoA
  272. which of the following has only 2 double carbons?
    linoleic acid
  273. in phenylalanine --> tyrosine reaction what is the end product?
    epinephrine
  274. the primary function to the ETC is to?
    oxidize coenzymes and convert their energy to ATP
  275. if the ETC were uncoupled how would ATP production be affected?
    decreased almost to zero
  276. which of the following is an aspartane?
    phenyalanine
  277. which of the following is a zymogen?
    trypsogen
  278. ___ is an amino acid precursor of carnitine?
    lysine
  279. from which vitamin is FAD derived?
    riboflavin
  280. Which of the following is a Ketone Body produced by fasting?
    beta hydroxybuterate, acetoacetate, acetone
  281. which of the following are monosaccarides?
    galactose, fructose, glucose
  282. which of the following are synthesized from the pentose phosphate shunt?
    NADPH and Ribose
  283. which of the following carries amino acids in protein synthesis?
    tRNA
  284. NADH is a cofactor of which of the following?
    dehydrogenase
  285. A proteolytic enzyme is most likely to catalyze proteins by what means?
    hydrolysis
  286. what is the first chemical reaction in the catabolism of amino acids?
    deamination
  287. sucrose does not contain which of the following?
    free anomeric carbon with OH group
  288. glycolysis of which of the following produces glucose only?
    amylose
  289. What is the intermediate in the malate-aspartate shuttle?
    oxaloacetate
  290. during fatty acid synthesis acetyl coA is transported from the mitochondria to cytoplasm as?
    citrate
  291. ketone body synthesis takes place in the ___.
    liver
  292. Which type of bond is found in RNA?
    phosphodiester
  293. which amino acid is a precursor to nicotinic acid?
    tryptophan
  294. which molecule transports amino acids to the site of protein synthesis?
    tRNA
  295. which amino acid is not found in DNA?
    uracil
  296. which is an essential aromatic amino acid?
    tryptophan
  297. in starvation the carbon atom in hepatic gluconeogenesis comes from ____.
    muscle protein
  298. disuse of which organ will directly impair the synthesis of urea?
    liver
  299. what profoundly affects the utilization of carbohydrates?
    insulin
  300. which of the following will block the effects of biotin?
    avidin (found in eggs)
  301. CoA is associated with which vitamin?
    pantothenic acid
  302. NADH is a cofactor in which of the following?
    dehydrogenase
  303. which of the following pairs are pyrimidines?
    thymine, uracil
  304. the stop and start codon must be ____.
    non parallel and non comparable
  305. glucagon and what other hormone have a similar effect on the liver?
    epinephrine
  306. Condroitin sulfate is a type of ___ which is commonly found in____.
    proteoglycans, connective tissue
  307. hydrolysis of amylopectin results in which of the following end products?
    maltose
  308. which of the following carbohydrates s a soluble dietary fiber?
    pectinose
  309. which of the following is a Kreb's cycle intermediate that occurs in the lowest concentration?
    oxaloacetate
  310. alpha amylase is found in which secretion?
    pancreas
  311. in a free system which of the following may stimulate an endergonic reaction?
    increase the concentration of the reactants
  312. during aerobic glycolysis one molecule of glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of ___.
    pyruvate
  313. what is the process of synthesizing glucose from amino acids known as?
    gluconeogenesis
  314. the first step in the synthesis of glucose from pyruvate is in the carboxylation of pyruvate to form ___.
    oxaloacetate
  315. which of the following is a krebs cycle intermediate?
    alpha ketogluterate
  316. pyruvate is converted to which of the following prior to entering the krebs cycle?
    acetyl coA
  317. which of the following compounds is an intermediate in the synthesis of glucose from pyruvate?
    glyceraldehyde 3, phosphate
  318. which of the following is found in collagen?
    proline
  319. the biosynthesis of FAD requires ____.
    riboflavin
  320. which of the following trace minerals is a component of the glucose tolerance factor?
    chromium
  321. gluconeogenesis in the liver does not include which of the following?
    citrate synthetase
  322. which of the following substances is the most highly oxidized?
    oxaloacetate
  323. acidic conditions
  324. acidic conditions in the liver as a result of alcoholism are due to the build up of ____.
    acetate
  325. which of the following is the quickest to become rancid?
    olive oil
  326. which of the following vitamin deficiencies is responsible for xerophthalmia?
    retinol
  327. which of the following prevents calcium absorption?
    oxalic acid
  328. which of the following catalyzes the oxidation-reduction reaction?
    dehydrogenase
  329. beta-oxidation of an 18-carbon saturated fatty acid yields?
    9 molecules of acetyl coA
  330. which of the following stimulates synthesis of hepatic glucogenic enzymes?
    cortisol
  331. oxaloacetate becomes aspartate via which of the following reactions?
    transamination
  332. which of the following is an important adjunct for glucose?
    chromium
  333. oxidation of fatty acids yielding CO2 and water through beta-oxidation also goes through the ____ and ___.
    TCA and ETC
  334. Which of the following represents transcription?
    DNA --> DNA (replication)
  335. If you ingest 200g of carbohydrates it will yield how many Kcalories?
    800 kcal
  336. Which of the following compounds is a component of NADPH and NADH?
    Niacin
  337. which carbohydrate has RNA as its major component?
    ribose
  338. which of the following is necessary for the maintenance of RBC's?
    vitamin B12 and Folic acid
  339. which of the following vitamins is used for carboxylation reaction during gluconeogenesis?
    biotin
  340. glucose --> lactate productes which of the following?
    2 ATP
  341. the source of NADPH for fatty acid synthesis is the ___
    hexose monophosphate shunt
  342. which of the following amino acids is ketogenic?
    lysine
  343. HMG-CoA reductase is the rate-limiting enzyme in which of the following?
    cholesterol sythesis
  344. which of the following is a major source of calcium in humans?
    dairy products
  345. which of the following minerals is an antioxidant?
    selenium (aces)
  346. an increase in which of the following minerals causes a decrease in blood pressure?
    potassium
  347. the intestines via ___ absorb dietary vitamin E.
    lipids
  348. due to liver storage and enteropathic recycling signs of a deficiency of which vitamin may not be visible for 5 or 6 years?
    vitamin b12 (cyanocobalamine)
  349. which of the following is a precursor to melatonin?
    serotonin
  350. which of the following is a non-polar side chain?
    alanine
  351. which of the following are found in secondary protein structures?
    hydrogen
  352. which of the following bonds are found in lipids?
    ester
  353. decarboxylation of acetoacetate yields ____.
    acetone
  354. which of the following is the reason that the TCA cycle cannot proceed under anaerobic conditions?
    cannot regenerate NAd and FAD without O2
  355. the most abundant polar compound of a cell membrane is the ___.
    phosphate portion of phospholipid
  356. which of the following is not a natural triglyceride but is present in hydrogenated triglycerides?
    trans-fatty acids
  357. protein is first broken down in which of the following structures of the body?
    stomach
  358. which amino acid is a precursor to serotonin?
    tryptophan
  359. which of the following states produces the most fatty acids?
    high carbohydrate diet
  360. after glycogen has been depleted from the body what is the source of carbon?
    proteins
  361. Which of the following is the highest energy compound?
    creatine phosphate
  362. which of the following is a negative allosteric inhibitor?
    ATP
  363. which substance supplies the primary fuel to the brain?
    glucose
  364. sucrose is made from which of the following combinations?
    glucose and fructose
  365. which vitamin is lethal is high doses?
    vitamin D
  366. which of the following is an essential fatty acid?
    linolenic acid
  367. which of the following is a precursor to prostaglandin's?
    ecosanoids
  368. which of the following indicates that an amino acid is nonessential?
    the ability of the body to synthesize it
  369. which of the following is a pyrimidine?
    uracil
  370. which of the following is a purine?
    guanine
  371. which of the following is a branched chain amino acid?
    leucine
  372. what leads to ketone body synthesis?
    incomplete oxidation of fats
  373. if a substance contains 30% starch, 10% maltose, 10% lactose, 50% sucrose, what % is glucose, galactose, fructose?
    70, 5, 25
  374. in the electron transport chain (ETC) what contains copper?
    cytochrome A3
  375. in fatty acid biosynthesis which of the following requires NADPH?
    ketoacyl reductase
  376. which of the following affects growth factor?
    zinc
  377. in which process is glucagon converted to a monosacharide phosphate?
    glycogenolysis
  378. what is an isomer of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate?
    dyhydroacetone phosphate
  379. which of the following is a ketosugar?
    fructose
  380. which of the following are aldose sugars?
    heptose, hexose, pentose
  381. which of the following promotes glycogen synthesis in the liver and muscle?
    insulin
  382. which of the following stimulates synthesis of hepatic glycogenic enzymes under resting condition?
    insulin
  383. epinephrine is synthesized and secreted by which of the following?
    adrenal medulla
  384. biosynthesis of testosterone utilizes which of the following?
    cholestersol
  385. which of the following is a polysaccahride?
    amylose
  386. which of the following are hexose sugars?
    fructose and galactose
  387. which of the following are branched chain amino acids?
    isoleucine, leucine, valine
  388. which of the following is a single polypeptide in fast twitch muscle?
    myoglobin
  389. niacin and riboflavin are enzymes involved in which of the following?
    oxidation-reduction reactions
  390. which of the following is the co-enzyme form of riboflavin?
    FAD
  391. which of the following is used to break triglycerides down?
    beta-oxidation
  392. beta 1,4 bonds are associated with which of the following?
    lactose
  393. which of the following is an allosteric enzyme in liver gluconeogenesis?
    pyruvate carboxylase
  394. which of the following does not use NADPH to make hydrogen?
    beta-oxidation
  395. which of the following carries the most cholesterol?
    LDL
  396. bilirubin is the degradation of which of the following?
    heme
  397. which of the following is used in the urea cycle, but not stored in humans?
    citruline and ornathine
  398. one molecule of glucose makes ___.
    2 molecules of ATP
  399. a deficiency in which of the follwing vitamins would cause neurological defects?
    vitamin B1
  400. what is the final product if the hexose monophosphate shunt?
    pentose sugar and NADPH
  401. which of the following transports cholesterol to the liver?
    HDL
  402. which of the following is stored in the form of iron?
    ferritin
  403. which of the following stimulates gluconeogenesis?
    cortisol
  404. which of the following does fasting create?
    decrease in serum insulin
  405. the enzyme for glycolysis are found in which part of the cell?
    cytoplasm (cytosol)
  406. which of the following is found in both glyolysis and gluconeogenesis?
    glyeraldyhyde-3-phosphate
  407. pyruvate converts to lactate anaerobically by ___.
    pyruvate dehydrogenase
  408. which of the following is a nonreducing starch?
    sucrose
  409. which of the following aids the utilization of vitamin E?
    selenium
  410. which of the following is the most saturated?
    coconut oil
  411. which of the following is lacking in the vegetarian diet?
    vitamin B12
  412. which of the following is an important adjunct in the absorption of glucose?
    chromium
  413. which of the following is the best source of dietary vitamin C?
    broccoli and fruits
  414. glucose is in the highest concentration in which of the following?
    cereals and grains
  415. beta-oxidation occurs in the ___ and is an ___ process.
    mitochondria, oxidative
  416. which of the following is a anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency?
    pernicious
  417. which of the following reactions is responsible for forming deoxyribose from ribose?
    reduction
  418. anaerobic glycolysis yields ___.
    2 net ATP's
  419. ketons result from ___.
    incomplete oxidation of fats
  420. which of the following are pyrimidines?
    cytosine, thiamine, uracil
  421. which of the following are functions of ascorbic acid (vitmain C)?
    increase iron absorption and collagen formation

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