Ch 2 Theories of Development

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Alightcap
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Ch 2 Theories of Development
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2014-01-27 13:30:38
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ch 2 theories of development
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  1. -A group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth.
    -provides a framework for explaining the patterns and problems of development.
    Developmental theory
  2. Grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior
    Psychoanalytic theory
  3. -Grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior.
    - describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned
    behaviorism
  4. The process by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place
    conditioning
  5. Learning process in which a meaningful stimulus is connected with a neutral stimulus that had no special meaning before conditioning
    Classical conditioning
  6. Learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired or by something unwanted.
    operant conditioning
  7. A technique for conditioning behavior in which that behavior is followed by something desired
    reinforcement
  8. An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person's behavior.  Even without specific reinforcement, every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people
    Social learning theory
  9. The central process of social learning, by which a person observes the actions of others and then copies them
    modeling
  10. In social learning theory, the belief of some people that they are able to change themselves and effectively alter the social context
    self-efficacy
  11. -Grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time
    - our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors
    Cognitive theory
  12. A state of mental balance in which people are not  confused because they can use their existing thought processes to understand current experiences and ideas
    Cognitive equilibrium
  13. The reinterpretation of new experiences to fit into old ones
    assimilation
  14. The restricting of old ideas to include new experiences
    accommodation
  15. Perspective that compares human thinking processes to computer analysis of data (sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output)
    Information processing
  16. An emergent theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces.
    sociocultural theory
  17. A metaphorical area, or zone, surrounding a learner that includes all the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the person is close to acquiring but cannot yet master without help
    Zone of proximal development
  18. Theory that stressed the potential of all humans for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs, regardless of culture, gender, or background
    humanism
  19. -The process by which living creatures adjust to their environment
    - genes that enhance survival and reproductive ability are selected, over generations, to become more frequent
    Selective adaptation
  20. The approach taken by most developmentalists, in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories of development rather than adhering exclusively to one theory
    Eclectic perspective

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