-A group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth.
-provides a framework for explaining the patterns and problems of development.
Grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior
-Grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior.
- describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned
The process by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place
Learning process in which a meaningful stimulus is connected with a neutral stimulus that had no special meaning before conditioning
Learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired or by something unwanted.
A technique for conditioning behavior in which that behavior is followed by something desired
An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person's behavior. Even without specific reinforcement, every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people
Social learning theory
The central process of social learning, by which a person observes the actions of others and then copies them
In social learning theory, the belief of some people that they are able to change themselves and effectively alter the social context
-Grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time
- our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors
A state of mental balance in which people are not confused because they can use their existing thought processes to understand current experiences and ideas
The reinterpretation of new experiences to fit into old ones
The restricting of old ideas to include new experiences
Perspective that compares human thinking processes to computer analysis of data (sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output)
An emergent theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces.
A metaphorical area, or zone, surrounding a learner that includes all the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the person is close to acquiring but cannot yet master without help
Zone of proximal development
Theory that stressed the potential of all humans for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs, regardless of culture, gender, or background
-The process by which living creatures adjust to their environment
- genes that enhance survival and reproductive ability are selected, over generations, to become more frequent
The approach taken by most developmentalists, in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories of development rather than adhering exclusively to one theory