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Functions of the cardiosystem:
- 1. Carry O2 and nutrients
- 2. Remove wastes (CO2)
- 3. Maintain homeostasis
The high pressure side of the heart
The low pressure side of the heart
This is the term given when a heart valve fails to close completely (stenosis) permitting a back flow of blood
These two valves are most commonly affected by stenosis
Mitral and Pulmonic
This is any interruption of the impulse pathway in the heart
3 forces that act on the SA Node
- 1. spontaneous originating impulses
- 2. vagal nerve > acetylcholine > cholinergic bradycardia
- 3. sympathetic fibers > norepinephrine > adernergic tachycardia
This is the filling time of the ventricle on an ECG
This is the filling time for the atrium on an ECG
This is the measurement of the left ventricle
This is the percentage capacity at which is considered normal heart function
This is the difference between the work capability at rest and that during maximum physical exertion
O2 availability to the tissues depends on:
- 1. cardiac output
- 2. amount of O2 extracted from the blood
What two systems generate blood pressure?
- General vascular system - left ventricle
- Pulmonary vascular system - right ventricle
Blood pressure on the arterial side is maintained by:
- 1. Cardiac output
- 2. Total Peripheral Vascular Resistance (TPR)
Mean Arterial Pressure is determined by:
the product of the level of cardiac function (cardiac output) and the degree of arteriolar constricture (TPR) MAP = CO x TPR
These are released from the atria of the heart in response to increases in blood volume and atrial filling
Atria Natriuretic Peptides
The functions of ANPs are:
- 1. Promote urinary excretion of Na+ and H2O by direct action on the tubules in the nephron
- 2. Reduce TPR by relaxing arterioler vascular smooth muscle
What are the two paracrine agents that regulate arteriolar pressure and cardiac output?
This is a local vasodilator released by endothelial cells in the linings of many blood vessels
This is a peptide released by endothelial cells in blood vessels that constrict vascular smooth muscle
These two agents are known to stimulate the release of endothelin
- Angiotensin II
This is where the blood flows is continuous and controlled by arteriolar sphincters in the wall
Another name for Arterio-venous capillaries
This type of capillary has no muscle where the change in flow is produced by tissue needs and pressure gradients via passive diffusion
Secondary capillaries are also known as:
Venous return to the heart is controlled by:
- Inspiration - negative intra-thoracic pressure acts like a vacuum to pull blood to the heart
- Venous Contraction
- Muscular activity - walking
- Peristalsis and intestinal activity
What is the percentage of chronic mitral disease in heart patients?
What percentage has heart involvement in disease?
What percentage of heart disease is related to Dilated Cardiomyopathy?
This is the failure of the opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta to close at birth that is the most common inherited pathology in companion animals
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
What is the Ductus Arteriosus supposed to become upon birth?
A treatment for mitral value insufficiency that is associated with restricted amounts in the diet
A treatment for mitral valve insufficiency that is associated with drugs that draw water from the body and increase urination.
Diuretics - Furosemide (Lasix), spironolactone
A treatment for mitral valve insufficiency that is associated with drugs that keep the blood pressure low which reduces the blood backing up into the lungs
- ACE inhibitors:
- Enalapril Maleate (Enacard - veterinary)
- Benazepril (Fortekor - human)
A treatment for mitral valve insufficiency that is associated with drugs that cause vessels to dilate and increase the afterload of the heart
A treatment for mitral valve insufficiency that is associated with drugs that promote cardiac contraction
- Positive Inotrope:
- Pimobendan (VetMedin)
A treatment for mitral valve insufficiency that is associated with drugs that lower the heart rate
Digitalis glycosides (Digoxin, Cardoxin)
A treatment of mitral valve insufficiency that is associated with drugs that keep stimulation of the heart by catecholamines low.
This is seen on an ECG as slightly wavy line with an occasional escape complex
This prohormone can give an indication of impending myocardial infarction in humans and myocardial condition in animals
B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)
This is the process of excretion of sodium in the urine by action of the kidneys
This is a peptide similar to ANP and is secreted by the left ventricle in response to wall stretch or stress which can be isolated by Idexx or Antech to predict heart failure
What value of NT-proBNP is considered normal?
What value of NT-proBNP indicates heart disease?
What value of NT-proBNP is indicative of heart failure?
This explains that some postganglionic receptors of the sympathetic nervous system release acetylcholine (are cholinergic)
What 3 structures only have sympathetic innervation?
- Hair folicles (piloerector muscles)
- Adrenal Medulla
- Sweat Glands
This is the poison from toadstools that only activates the receptors at the postganglionic synapse of the parasympathetic system
Epinephrine excites with receptors
Alpha and Beta
Norepinephrine excites which receptors?
What two effects do catecholamines produce?
With the exception of intestinal smooth muscle alpha receptors are basically what?
With the exception of cardiac muscle beta receptors are bascially what?
A phase of shock where all the arterioles except coronary and cerebral constrict to shunt blood from the periphery to internal organ, maintain blood pressure, and increase cardiac output
A phase of shock where the heart can no longer pump sufficiently due to fatigue which reduces cardiac output and O2 causing respiratory and vasodilation
A phase of shock where damage to the heart is too great to be treated, resulting in death
This is the reason why vessels vasodilate
To reduce friction on the blood so it flows more easily.