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What is feudalism and why was it enacted?
A system of governing and landholding. Enacted b/c survival was of gerat concern at this time b/c invasions and fall of Roman Empire. People naturally flock to those who can defend them.
Explain feudalism terms
In exchange for protection, serfs could offer their subordination to their lords and work the land for them.
What is a fief?
Land granted to a serf.
What is the feudal hierarchy?
- The Monarch
- The Nobility
- The Knights
- The Serfs
Medieval Women: The degree of freedom depended on her ______.
Law in Medieval Europe: 3 ordeals
- 1. Ordeal by fire
- 2. Ordeal by water
- 3. Ordeal by combat
What were castles
Not just homes for the lords, they were also fortifications against enemy attacks.
What was Monasticsm
Ideal set by St. benedict
What were the Benedictine rules
very strict rules, this kind of faith was seen as a healing refuge. Very harsh lifestyle.
Set up by devout widows and single women
Who was St. Francis of Assisi
A mystic who, inspired by his visions of Christ, trusted in God to provide everything as he denounced himself
Founded by Santa Clare dei Sciffi. Nuns who took vows of chastity, poverty and obedience.
Main problems of all this faith stuff? (3)
- No organization
- Simony and concubinage (prostitution + corruption)
What were the Holy Crusades?
A series of Holy Wars launched by the Christians against the Muslims (or Saracens).
What was the goal of the Crusades?
To liberate Jerusalem from Muslim rule.
Cause for the Crusades?
A war between Christians and Muslims centered around Jerusalem.
Objectives of the Crusades?
At first, to reclaim the Holy Land from the Muslims. In time it was extended to seizing Spain from the Spanish Muslims, the Slavs and Pagans from Eastern Europe, and the islands of the Mediterranean.
How many crusades were there and which ones mattered most?
about 8, but only the first four were seen as the most important.
Which crusade is considered to be the only successful one?
What two aspects of Christianity helped drive the Crusaders to embark on the Crusades?
- 1. The remission of sins and entrance into paradise was guaranteed.
- 2. It was honorable/noble/chivalrous, a sign of being a true Knight.
Impacts of the Crusades? (3)
- Helped to end feudalism
- Increased the wealth of the Church and the power of the Popes (Papacy)
- Revival of learning
What type of rat carried the Plague?
The Black Rat
How did London help the spread of the Plague? (3)
- Full of diseases
- Streets were filthy with poop and rotten stuff
- People were always crowded together
What were Flagellants?
People who travelled about whipping each other. They believed that the Black Death was God's punishment.
Were the cures and preventative measures at the time of the Plague effective at all? Name some examples.
No, they weren't. Completely useless, ie. Drink hot drinks, carry luck charm, wear flowers, use leeches to bleed the victim, etc.
Effects of the Plague (3)
- White coating on the tongue
- Black pustule called a rose forms at rat bite
- Ashen skin
About how many Europeans died b/c of the Plague?
About 1/3 or more of the population of England and Wales.
Impacts & Changes influenced by the Plague
Things were getting better for the peasants b/c there were so little labourers available that they could ask for higher pay.
What are guilds?
An organization for specialized jobs, like unions
Rise of Medieval Towns and Commerce: What were the changes/impacts? (3)
- Farming techniques becoming advanced (ie. heavy plough)
- More jobs b/c more people and trade
- Feudalism was changing
Medieval Architectural Styles: Byzantine
Use of the dome
Medieval Architectural Styles: Romanesque
Stone cut with precision, Roman arch, barrel or tunnel vaults
Medieval Architectural Styles: Gothic
Flying buttresses, higher castles, Gothic pointed arch, Gargoyles, slender towers
Catholic Reformation and Counter Revolution: Causes of the Reformation? (2)
- Corruption in the Catholic Church (ie. Absenteeism, sale of indulgences, nepotism, Moral decline of the Papacy)
- Renaissance Humanism (new translations of the bible undermined Catholic authority)
Who was Martin Luther
An Augustinian monk who wrote the 95 Theses, which questioned the authority of the pope to grant sale indulgences oh oh oh so controversial
What was Martin Luther's goal and theology of reform?
- Goal: To reform the Catholic Church.
- Reform: Salvation can be achieved through faith alone, the Bible is the sole authority, only 2 sacraments are valid.
What is Calvinism
Influenced by Humanism, the idea of PREDESTINATION: Since God is all knowing, he already knows who is going to Heaven and who is destined for Hell. .: good works is not sufficient for salvation.
The Printing Press
Before Gutenberg's press, monks only read/ wrote in Latin. It was also accessible bc his stuff was written in vernacular, which is how people speak