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What are the features of civilization?
- Merchants & Trading
- Science and Technology
- Occupation Specialization
- Class Structure
What is the class structure of Mesopotamia?
- Royals (priests, kings)
- Free clients
- Workers (trade)
What type of writing did Sumerians make?
Who made cuneiform?
Name five inventions of the Sumerians
- Irrigation system
- Plow system
- Sail boat
- Calendar system
Who was the chief in the Akkadians?
Which Mesopotamian group is Sargon?
Name the four groups of Mespotamians
Who was the King in Babylonia?
Who was the king in Assyria?
Who made the first written laws?
Who made the first empire?
What is the Cradle of Civilization?
What is Mesopotamia also known as?
The Cradle of Civilization
What word in Greek does Mesopotamia come from?
Between the rivers
What is the history of Mesopotamia in relation to the four groups?
- Sumer - southern part (3500 - 2000 BCE)
- Akkad - north part (2340 - 2180 BCE)
- Babylonia - unified (1830 - 1500 BCE and 650 - 500 BCE)
- Assyria - Assyrian Empire (1100 - 612 BCE)
What religion was in Mesopotamia?
- Polytheistic with over 3600 gods and demi gods
- Kings/rulers were sent, created, and enhanced by gods
Name five prominent Mesopotamian gods
- Enlil (supreme, god of air)
- Ishtar (goddess of fertility & life)
- An (god of beauty)
- Enki (god of water & underworld)
- Shamash (god of sun)
What are ziggurats?
Large temples dedicated to the god of the city
Name a famous ziggurat
Tower of Babel
What did the Assyrians develop?
- advanced weapons and military equipment
- siege engine (cart like structure that protected soldiers)
- library with tablets of subjects
- kept time
Who created the concept of private ownership and why?
Sumerians, to accumulate more land
Who were the terrorists
How did the Sumerians create their agriculture system?
- irrigation system
- building dikes
- developing a calendar system
- land fertile
- fertile crescent
Who unified lower Mesopotamia?
What was the Babylonian economy based on
Agriculture and wool/cloth
What did Babylonians use for the medium of exchange
How many laws were in the code of Hammurabi?
What was the City of Assur important for?
important trading & political centre
Who created taxes
Who is Anubis
God of embalming
Who is Horus
God of Pharaoh
Who is Osiris
God of dead
Who is Thoth
God of wisdom
Who are the Egyptians idea of spirit
Ka and Ba
When the creator god, Khnum created infants, placed them in mother's womb. Ka remained in heart until after death, when spirit and body separate. Ba is personality
To Ancient Egyptians, what did the gods and goddesses represent?
- Natural & human characteristics/life giving forces
- Took form of the animal s/he embodied
What is dessication?
Bodies naturally preserved in deserts
What are reed coffins?
Trapped moisture of body, causing bodies to decay
Use of long strips of linen and natron to preserve body
What effect did the pyramid's shape have?
- Size = protection
- Resembled rays of sun descending to earth, associating to the sun god Re
Beliefs concerning the afterlife of the king were documented in
Why did the Pyramid texts relate the kings with gods?
so kings became a divine unifying source of religious practice & people of Egypt
Deceased Kings are to return to...
the womb of Nutt to be reborn
The goal of non-royal Egyptians when deceased is to be...
equipped spirit - akh - have knowledge of the after life, steady tomb, store treasure
WOMEN IN EGYPT - PHARAOH
- Matrilneal descent
- married brother and sister
WOMEN IN EGYPT - NOBILITY
- leisure - cared for children
- dress - wigs of human hair, used cosmetics
- legal rights - could own property, act as judge, collect alimony
WOMEN IN EGYPT - WORKERS
- industrial - made linens, scribes, collected taxes, kept records, accountants
- manual - worked, hunted
Name five important rulers in New Kingdom
- Tuthmosis II
- Ramses II
He trusts a terrible road
What are mastabas?
Plastered, mud bricks
What did royal mastabas develop into?
Step pyramids & true pyramids
What did Hatshepsut do
- First powerful female leader
- Instead of giving the role to her son, she took it and made it better yo
- Expanded trade and created a building program
- PEACE, PROSPERITY, STABILITY!!!!!! U GO GURL
What did Tuthmosis do
- hated Hatshepsut :((((
- Napoleon of Egypt wut wut that's why New Kingdom was wealthy b/c he defeated everyone mwuahahaha >:)
What is Akhenaton do
- he hated the state religion so he was like "fuck you guys and Amon Aton is da best" and then concentrated his energy on reforming Egyptian religion
- built capital city called Akhetaton wow obsessed much
- closed other temples LAME
- he didn't govern the empire so when he died so did the empire loser
What did Tutankhamun do
- rejected Aton haha later losers let's go back to traditional religion
- changes Egypt's capital to Thebes LATER AKHETATON
- constructed buildings and shit like temples fuck yeah
- he's fuckin awesome sort of
COMPARE AND CONTRAST: Influence of geography
- both needed rivers because rivers are where it's at
- also very hot and dry climate wow lame
COMPARE AND CONTRAST: Religious beliefs
both had polytheistic gods
COMPARE AND CONTRAST: Government structure
- MESOPOTAMIAking is living representation of god - theocracy
- Assyria, state vs religion
- extensive code damn u Hammurabi
- hierarchy yay [gods -> kings -> nobility -> free clients -> workers -> slaves]
- EGYPTPharaoh is god too wow twinsies
- had minions like vizier, steward, chamberlain, first herald, and nomarch
- not as extensive code like mesopotamia
- hierarchy woo [pharaoh -> minions -> slaves]
COMPARE AND CONTRAST: Women
take care of children
Egypt they could do more like be in power [Pharaoh] and trade
COMPARE AND CONTRAST: Legacies
- coded laws
- metal working
- prosper on agriculture
- buildings b/c Ramses
- Hatshepsut first woman ya gurl
Which king united Egypt
What did King Menes do