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What are the three behavioural sciences?
What is anthropology?
Deals with PHYSICAL and CULTURAL origins
What is sociology?
Study societal factors
What is psychology
Studies behavior of the individual
what are the five processes of inquiry
- Identifying problems
- Develop a hypothesis
- Gather data
- Analyze data
What are the five ways to gather data
- Natural Observation
- Conducting a survey
- Consulting Records
What are the subfields of anthropology (6)
How have woman influence psychology
- Post 1980s women were tested on
- Now psychology is dominantly woman
What is Pavlov's theory of association
What is classic conditioning
Ivan Pavlov did an experiment with his dog
- BEFORE CONDITIONING
- 1. He rang bell (unconditioned stimulus) Dog does not respond (unconditioned response)
- 2. Shows dog food (unconditioned stimulus), dog sees food, drools (unconditioned response)
- DURING CONDITIONING
- repeat step 1
- AFTER CONDITIONING
- 1. Rang bell (conditioned stimulus), dog drools (conditioned response)
What is operant conditioning
- B.F. Skinner placed a rat in a cage. He runs around. When he hits a bar he gets good. At first rat doesn't care. After a while rat realizes that if it hits var it gets food (reward) and associated bar with good.
- Later bar = electrocution and rat associates it
Who developed operant conditioning
Who developed classical conditioning
Differences between classical conditioning and operand conditioning
- Operant conditioning requires the subject to operate in environment
- Operand conditioning has subject learn on its own
In B.F Skinner's experiment, what was the bar pressing?
In B.F Skinner's experiment, what was the food?
In B.F Skinner's experiment, what was the shock?
What was Freud's mind theory?
There are three levels of our mind: ego, id, and super ego
What is conscious and what's unconscious in Freud's theory?
- Conscious - ego
- Unconscious - id, super ego
What is the ego?
Mediates id and super ego, makes final decision
What is the id?
Little devil, wants pleasure in food, sleep, and sex in abundance, impulsive
What is the superego?
Little angel, encourages you to do the right thing
What's a Freudian slip?
Calling someone you like - id telling ego to listen
What's an ulterior motive
Freud believed most of us had one but aren't aware of it because they're in the id)
What are the five stages of Freud's Personal Development
What is the oral stage?
- Up to 18 months
- Babies put things in their mouth - let them or they will over eat, smoke, and be dependent on mum
What is the anal stage?
- 18 months and three years
- Be proud of poop or they'll be anal
What is the phallic stage
- Son likes mum, Oedipus complex, son is afraid of dad because he is big so he acts like his father. Develops super ego
What is the latency stage
What is the genital stage
- Struggle in id, increases sexual energy
What are the three criticisms of Freud's theories
- Too asexual
- Focused on youth
- Based on females with mental illnesses
Who developed the ego, id, and superego?
Who is the father of psychology?
Who creates the Cognitive Development theory?
What did Jean Piaget create?
Cognitive Development Theory
What did Jean Piaget believe?
Children learn by themselves cognitively
What is stage one of Piaget's theory
What is the sensory motor stage? (Piaget)
Baby begins to develop reflexive and primitive thought; improves senses and motor skills
What is stage two of Piaget's theory
What happens in the preoperational stage (Piaget)
- Develops language and numbers
- Ego centric
What is stage three of Piaget's theory
The concrete observational stage
What is the concrete operational stage?
- Problem solving
- Understands revers ability
- Sorts to realize it belongs in more than one category
What is stage four of Piaget's theory
Formal operational stage
What is the formal operational stage (Piaget)
Systematic analyzation and solving problems
Similarities and differences with chimpanzees
- Uses tools
- Walks on two legs
- Alpha male
- Feels emotions
- Fights for power
- Capable of conflict
- Chimps walk on hands
What confirmed Anna Anderson to be Anastasia
- Same handwriting
- Relative recognizes her
- Same ear
What didn't confirm Anna Anderson to be Anastasia
- Found mumbling in Polish
- Couldn't figure out layout of palace
What do the Pendang women do to their necks
Solid rings - goal is 32
What do women in China do to their feet
Women of Ethiopia draw attention to their lips by
inserting a queen sized platea
What do women in Cameroon do to emphasize their child birth abilities
Pad their pelvics
Why did the custom of short hair for men occur?
Harder to grab in war
In Middle Eastern countries, women have to cover
Everything except eyes
Two universal appeals are
Youth and health
How many days do men spend shaving
What are the seven subfields of psychology
- Psycho analytical
What is Erik Erikson's theory?
Psycho Social development; how family shapes people from infancy to adulthood
What are the eight stages of Erik Erikson's theory
- STAGE ONE: trust vs mistrust
- STAGE TWO: autonomy
- STAGE THREE: initiative vs guilt
- STAGE FOUR: industry vs inferiority
- STAGE FIVE: identity vs role confusion
- STAGE SIX: intimacy vs isolation
- STAGE SEVEN: generativity vs stagnation
- STAGE EIGHT: integrity vs despair
What are Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning?
- Punishment and Obedience orientation
- Individualism and purpose
- Interpersonal norms
- Law and order orientation
- Community rights vs individual rights
- Universal ethical principals
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
- Self Esteem
- Self Actualization
What is self actualization?
Personal growth and fulfillment, non conformist, socially compassionate, seeks no rewards
What's the grumble theory
Never satisfied with what u have
What are criticisms on Kohlberg's theories
- Tested on males