Psychology 101

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  1. Psychology
    The discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organisms physical state, mental state, and external environment
  2. Pseudoscience
    Promises easy fixes to life's problems and challenges
  3. Empirical
    Relying on or derived from observation, experimentation or measurement
  4. Psychobabble
    Pop psych
  5. Critical thinking
    • The ability and willingness to assess claims and make judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence rather than emotion or anecdote
    • Look for flaws in argument and resist claims with no support
    • Creative and constructive
    • Process, easier to poke holes in someone else's argument than to critically examine your own
  6. 8 essential critical thinking guidelines
    • Ask questions - general
    • Define your terms - frame question in concrete terms
    • Examine the Evidence - what and how reliable evidence that supports or refutes
    • Analyze Assumptions and Biases - identify and evaluate unspoken assumptions on which claims may rest.  Assumptions - beliefs that are taken for granted.  Biases - when assumption keeps us from considering evidence fairly, creates intellectual blinders
    • Avoid Emotional Reasoning - passionate commitment to a belief. Not to go on feelings replacing clear thinking.
    • Don't Oversimplify - look beyond the obvious.  Argument by anecdote - generalizing from a personal experience or from a few examples to everyone, source of stereotyping
    • Consider Other Interpretations- generate as many reasonable explanations of the topic as possible before settling on the most likely one (with most evidence and fewest assumptions) Occams razor theory
    • Tolerate Uncertainty- when little or no evidence available or evidence permits only tentative conclusions, say idk or change mind.
  7. Characteristics of the ideal scientist
    • Precision
    • Skepticism
    • Reliance on empirical evidence
    • Willingness to make risky predictions
    • Openness
  8. Precision
    • Ideal scientist characteristic
    • Theory - an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain certain phenomena and how they are related
    • Hypothesis - statement that attempts to predict or account for a set of phenomena
    • Operational Definitions- definition of a term in hypothesis which specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process or phenomenon being defined
  9. Skepticism
    • Ideal scientist characteristic
    • Doubt what assumed true, treating conclusions with caution. Showing why a claim is invalid
  10. Reliance on empirical evidence
    • Ideal scientist characteristic
    • not judge by how pleasing but by supported evidence.
  11. Willingness to make risky predictions
    • Ideal scientist characteristic
    • Must state idea in such a way that it can be refuted
    • Principle of falsifiability - make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation.  predict not only what will happen but also what will not
    • Confirmation bias - the tendency to look for and accept evidence that supports ones belief and ignore or reject that contradicts
  12. Openness
    • Ideal scientist characteristic
    • Willing to tell others where get ideas, how tested and results. For replication to verify or challenge findings
  13. Psychoanalysis
    • Theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy developed by Sigmund Freud. Emphasis on unconscious motives and conflicts
    • Psychoanalysis is called Psychodynamic because it emphasizes the movement of psychological energy within the person, in the form of attachments, conflicts and motivations.
  14. Psychodynamic theories
    Theories that explain behavior and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamics within the individual
  15. Freud and Psychoanalysis
    unconscious motives, passions and guilty secrets, unspeakable yearnings... these have more power than conscious
  16. The structure of personality
    • Id
    • Superego
    • Ego
    • Freud believes healthy personality keeps all three in balance.
  17. Id
    • In psychoanalysis, the part of personality containing inherited psychic energy, particularly sexual and aggressive instincts
    • Libido- psychic energy that fuels the life or sexual instincts of the id
  18. Superego
    In psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents conscience, morality and social standards
  19. Ego
    In psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents reason, good sense and rational self-control
  20. Defense mechanisms
    Methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness
  21. 5 primary defense mechanisms
    • Repression
    • Projection
    • Displacement
    • Regression
    • Denial
  22. Repression
    When ones own threatening idea, memory or emotion is blocked from consciousness
  23. Projection
    When ones own threatening feelings are repressed and attributed to someone else
  24. Displacement
    When people direct emotions that make them uncomfortable or conflicted toward people, animals, or objects that are not the real object of their feelings
  25. Regression
    When a person reverts to a previous phase of psychological development
  26. Denial
    When people refuse to admit that something unpleasant is happening. protects a persons self-image and preserves the illusion of invulnerability
  27. The development of personality/ psychosexual stages
    Freud's theory, the idea that sexual energy takes different forms as the child matures
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Psychology 101
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