Microbiology

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Author:
kelsey890
ID:
258745
Filename:
Microbiology
Updated:
2014-01-27 22:31:21
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lecture
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Chapter 1
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lecture notes
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  1. MICROORGANISMS
    CAN PRODUCE:
    • —Industrial chemicals
    • ØEthanol
    • Ø Acetone

    • —Fermented foods
    • ØVinegar
    • ØCheese
    • Ø Bread

    • —Products used in manufacturing
    • Ø Cellulase

    • —Products used in treatment
    • ØInsulin
  2. Designer
    Jeans: Made by Microbes?
    • Stone-washing:
    • Trichoderma

    • Cotton:
    • Gluconacetobacter

    Debleaching: Mushroom peroxidase

    Indigo: E. coli

    • Plastic:
    • Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate
  3. CLASSIFICATION
    OF MICROORGANISMS
    • THREE
    • DOMAINS

    ØBacteria

    ØArchaea

    ØEukarya

       Protists

       Fungi

       Plants

       Animals
  4. BACTERIA
    – DOMAIN BACTERIA
    PROKARYOTES

    • Peptidoglycan
    • cell walls

    • Binary
    • fission
  5. ARCHAEA
    – DOMAIN ARCHAEA
    PROKARYOTIC

    Lack peptidoglycan

    • Live in extreme environments

        Include

    ØMethanogens

    ØExtreme halophiles

    ØExtreme thermophiles
  6. FUNGI
    – DOMAIN EUKARYA
    Chitin cell walls


    Use organic chemicals for energy


    Molds & mushrooms are multicellular

    Yeasts are unicellular
  7. PROTISTS– DOMAIN EUKARYA
    Absorb or ingest organic chemicals

    MOTILITY:

    ØPseudopods

    ØCilia

    ØFlagella
  8. ALGAE – DOMAIN EUKARYA
    Eukaryotes

    Cellulose cell walls

    Use photosynthesis for energy

    Produce molecular oxygen & organic compounds
  9. VIRUSES
    Acellular


    DNA or RNA core


    Protein coat


    Replicated only when they are in a living host cell
  10. MULTICELLULAR ANIMAL PARASITES
    Eukaryotes

    Parasitic flatworms and roundworms are called helminths.

    Microscopic stages in life cycles.
  11. THE FIRST OBSERVATIONS --1665
    • Robert Hooke reported that living things
    • were composed of little boxes, or cells
  12. THE FIRST OBSERVATIONS -- 1673-1723
    • Anton van Leeuwenhoek described live
    • microorganisms

    • In rain water, from his own feces and
    • scraped from his teeth

    Constructed over 400 microscopes. It took another 200 yrs to come up with a microscope better than Leeuwenhoek

    ØAlthough the first microbes were observed in 1673, DNA from Mycobacteria tuberculosis was found in the remains of a 3,000 yr old Egyptian Mummy
  13. THE FIRST OBSERVATIONS--1858
    Rudolf Virchow – Concept of Biogenesis -“cells arise from preexisting cells”

    Cell theory: All living things are composed of cells and come from preexisting cells
  14. SPONTANEOUS GENERATION:
    • The hypothesis that living organisms arise from nonliving matter; a “vital force”
    • forms life
  15. BIOGENESIS
    The hypothesis that the living organisms arise from preexisting life
  16. GOLDEN AGE OF MICROBIOLOGY
    1857-1914
  17. WHAT IS FERMENTATION?
    Fermentation is the conversion of sugar to alcohol – THINK BEER AND WINE

    Pasteur showed that microbes are responsible for fermentation and for food spoilage

    Bacteria that use alcohol and produce acetic acid spoil wine by turning it to vinegar (acetic acid)
  18. PASTEURIZATION
    • French microbiologist – 1862 - Was
    • contacted by wine producers with a problem that their wine was going sour.

    • Pasteur thought that the wine was
    • “infected” with detrimental microbe

    He briefly heated the wine to kill these microbes, but was not hot enough to evaporate the alcohol in wine

    Advent of pasteurization!  Pasteurization is the application of a high heat for a short time

    • Also postulated that if wine can be
    • infected by microbes, people can too.

    This is the beginning of the germ theory of disease.
  19. JOSEPH LISTER
    Applied germ theory to the treatment and prevention of disease by using a chemical disinfectant to prevent surgical wound infections

    Used carbolic acid (phenol) to clean hands, wounds and operating rooms

    Number of post-operative infections was reduced – Credited with initiating the use of aseptic techniques in surgery
  20. THE GERM THEORY OF DISEASE
    1876: Robert Koch - German microbiologist Contemporary of Pasteur

    Worked on anthrax, tuberculosis, and cholera - proved that a bacterium causes anthrax

    He provided the experimental steps to prove that a SPECIFIC MICROBE causes a SPECIFIC DISEASE

    Described several postulates for proving the etiological (causative) agent of disease (1884)
  21. KOCH’S POSTULATES
    • —The SAME pathogen must be PRESENT in EVERY CASE of the disease.
    • —
    • —The pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture.

    —The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when inoculated into a healthy, susceptible laboratory animal.

    ——The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the original organism.

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