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- Industrial chemicals
- Ø Acetone
- Fermented foods
- Ø Bread
- Products used in manufacturing
- Ø Cellulase
- Products used in treatment
Jeans: Made by Microbes?
Debleaching: Mushroom peroxidase
Indigo: E. coli
- Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate
– DOMAIN BACTERIA
– DOMAIN ARCHAEA
- Live in extreme environments
– DOMAIN EUKARYA
Chitin cell walls
Use organic chemicals for energy
Molds & mushrooms are multicellular
Yeasts are unicellular
PROTISTS– DOMAIN EUKARYA
Absorb or ingest organic chemicals
ALGAE – DOMAIN EUKARYA
Cellulose cell walls
Use photosynthesis for energy
Produce molecular oxygen & organic compounds
DNA or RNA core
Replicated only when they are in a living host cell
MULTICELLULAR ANIMAL PARASITES
Parasitic flatworms and roundworms are called helminths.
Microscopic stages in life cycles.
THE FIRST OBSERVATIONS --1665
- Robert Hooke reported that living things
- were composed of little boxes, or cells
THE FIRST OBSERVATIONS -- 1673-1723
- Anton van Leeuwenhoek described live
- In rain water, from his own feces and
- scraped from his teeth
Constructed over 400 microscopes. It took another 200 yrs to come up with a microscope better than Leeuwenhoek
ØAlthough the first microbes were observed in 1673, DNA from Mycobacteria tuberculosis
was found in the remains of a 3,000 yr old Egyptian Mummy
THE FIRST OBSERVATIONS--1858
Rudolf Virchow – Concept of Biogenesis -“cells arise from preexisting cells”
Cell theory: All living things are composed of cells and come from preexisting cells
- The hypothesis that living organisms arise from nonliving matter; a “vital force”
- forms life
The hypothesis that the living organisms arise from preexisting life
GOLDEN AGE OF MICROBIOLOGY
WHAT IS FERMENTATION?
Fermentation is the conversion of sugar to alcohol – THINK BEER AND WINE
Pasteur showed that microbes are responsible for fermentation and for food spoilage
Bacteria that use alcohol and produce acetic acid spoil wine by turning it to vinegar (acetic acid)
- French microbiologist – 1862 - Was
- contacted by wine producers with a problem that their wine was going sour.
- Pasteur thought that the wine was
- “infected” with detrimental microbe
He briefly heated the wine to kill these microbes, but was not hot enough to evaporate the alcohol in wine
Advent of pasteurization! Pasteurization is the application of a high heat for a short time
- Also postulated that if wine can be
- infected by microbes, people can too.
This is the beginning of the germ theory of disease.
Applied germ theory to the treatment and prevention of disease by using a chemical disinfectant to prevent surgical wound infections
Used carbolic acid (phenol) to clean hands, wounds and operating rooms
Number of post-operative infections was reduced – Credited with initiating the use of aseptic techniques in surgery
THE GERM THEORY OF DISEASE
1876: Robert Koch - German microbiologist Contemporary of Pasteur
Worked on anthrax, tuberculosis, and cholera - proved that a bacterium causes anthrax
He provided the experimental steps to prove that a SPECIFIC MICROBE causes a SPECIFIC DISEASE
Described several postulates for proving the etiological (causative) agent of disease (1884)
- The SAME pathogen must be PRESENT in EVERY CASE of the disease.
- The pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture.
The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when inoculated into a healthy, susceptible laboratory animal.
The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the original organism.