Ch 3- Heredity and Environment
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One of 46 molecules of DNA that virtually each cell of the human body contains and that, together, contain all genes.
-A small section of a chromosome
-the basic unit for the transmission of heredity
-consists of a string of chemicals that provide instructions for the cell to manufacture certain proteins
A variation that makes a gene different in some way from others genes for the same characteristics
The full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of a certain species
The single cell formed from the union of two gametes, a sperm and ovum
A reproduction cell, sperm or ovum, that can produce a new individual if it combines with another from the other sex to make a zygote
An organism's entire genetic inheritance, or genetic potential
Referring to two genes of one pair that are exactly the some in every letter of their code
Referring to two genes of one pair that differ in some way. Typically one allele has only a few base pairs that differ from the other member of the pair
The chromosome pair that determines sex
-A 23rd chromosome pair that consists of two X-shaped chromosomes
- becomes a female
- 23rd chromosome pair that becomes male
Cells from which any other specialized type of cell can form
Twins who originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development
monozygotic twins or identical twins
Twins who are formed when two separate oval are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time
dizygotic twins or fraternal twins
A general term for the techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and then sustain a pregnancy
Assisted reproduction technology (ART)
Fertilization that takes place outside a woman's body. The procedure involves mixing sperm with oval that have been surgically removed from the woman's ovary. Once the zygote is produced it is inserted into the woman's uterus
In vitro fertilization (IVF)
The observable characteristics of a person, including appearance, personality, intelligence, and all other traits
Referring to a trait that is influenced by many genes
Referring to environment factors that affect genes and genetic expression; enhancing, halting, shaping, or altering the expression of genes, resulting in a phenotype that may differ markedly from the genotype
An international effort to map the complete human genetic code. This effort was essentially completed in 2001, though analysis is ongoing
Human genome project
The interaction of a heterozygous pair of alleles in such a way that the phenotype reveals the influence of the one allege (dominant gene) more than that of the other (recessive gene)
A person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed in the phenotype.
Referring to a gene carried on the X chromosome
A statistic that indicates what percentage of the variation in a particular trait within a particular population can be traced to genes
-A condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46, with 3 rather than 2 chromosomes at the 21st site.
- people with this condition typically have distinctive characteristics, including unusual facial features, heart abnormalities and language difficulties
A genetic disorder in which part of the X chromosome seems to be attached to the rest of it by a very thin string of molecules. The cause is a single gene that has more than 200 repetitions of one triplet
Fragile X syndrome
Consultation and testing by trained experts that enable individuals to learn about their genetic heritage, including harmful conditions that they might pass along to any children they may conceive.
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