Pathophys 2 (Fluids & Electrolytes)

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MeganM
ID:
258750
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Pathophys 2 (Fluids & Electrolytes)
Updated:
2014-02-09 22:10:04
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Patho
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Fluids & Electrolytes
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  1. Normal range for sodium?
    135-145
  2. Normal range for Potassium?
    3.5-5
  3. What is K+ responsible for?
    Transmission of nerve and muscle impulses.
  4. What important role does Na+ play?
    Maintains water balance
  5. Normal range for chloride?
    104-106
  6. What does chloride do in the body?
    It is a buffer and regulates acid-base
  7. Normal range for Calcium?
    9-11
  8. Why is Calcium important?
    • Nerve transmission & 
    • heart contraction
  9. What is BUN?
    Blood Urea Nitrogen
  10. Normal range for BUN?
    10-20
  11. What is significant about BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen)?
    Urea is the by-product of metabolism
  12. Normal range of creatinine?
    .7 - 1.2
  13. How is creatinine produced?
    By muscle metabolism
  14. Normal range of CO2?
    22-26
  15. What two electrolytes act as buffers?
    chloride and CO2
  16. Normal range of Mag?
    1.5 - 2.5
  17. Function of mag?
    • Nerve conduction & 
    • muscle tissue fxn
  18. S/S of excess Na+ (>145)?
    • (hypernatremia)
    • thirst
    • CNS deterioration
    • increased interstitial fluid
  19. S/S of Na+ deficit (<135)?
    • (hyponatremia)
    • CNS deterioration
  20. S/S of excess potassium (>5)?
    • (hyperkalemia)
    • V-fib
    • ECG changes
    • CNS changes
    • weakness
    • vomiting
  21. S/S of potassium deficit (<3.5)?
    • (hypokalemia)
    • bradycardia
    • ECG changes
    • CNS changes
    • fatigue
  22. S/S of excess calcium (>11)?
    • (hypercalcemia)
    • thirst CNS deterioration
    • increased interstitial fluid
    • *risk for kidney stones
  23. S/S of calcium deficit (<9)?
    • (hypocalcemia)
    • tetany
    • Chvostek's or Trousseau's sign 
    • muscle twitching
    • CNS changes 
    • ECG changes
  24. What is Chvostek's or Trousseau's sign?
    sign of hypocalcemia (poke the cheek and the muscles of eye/mouth twitch)
  25. S/S of excess Mg?
    • (Hypermagnesemia)
    • Loss of deep tendon reflexes (DTRs)
    • Depression of CNS
    • Depression of neuromuscular fxn
  26. S/S of Mg deficit?
    • (Hypomagnesemia)
    • Hyperactive DTRs (deep tendon reflexes)
    • CNS changes
  27. What is osmolality?
    mOsm/kilogram
  28. What is osmolarity?
    mOsm/Liter
  29. What is the osmolality of humans?
    290 mOsm/kg
  30. What could increased BUN and increased creatinine indicate?
    a kidney problem
  31. What is the normal range of BUN (blood urea nitrogen)?
    7 - 20 mg/dL
  32. What does Urine Specific Gravity do?
    • Evaluates the kidney's ability to conserve or excrete urine;
    • measures the wt of fluid in relation to water (water = 1.000)
  33. What is the normal urine specific gravity range?
    1.010 - 1.020
  34. What is acidosis?
    blood pH below 7.35 (increase in H+ ions)
  35. What is alkalosis?
    Blood pH of over 7.45 (decrease in H+ ions)
  36. Normal range of CO2?
    22-26
  37. Normal range of HCO3-?
    22-26
  38. Normal range of blood pH?
    7.35-7.45
  39. What is PaCO2?
    Arterial CO2 = Respiratory
  40. Diseases of Respiratory Acidosis.
    • COPD
    • Emphysema
    • Pneumonia
  41. Diseases of Respiratory Alkalosis.
    • Pulmonary Embolus
    • Cirrhosis
    • Sepsis
    • Pregnancy
  42. Diseases of Metabolic Acidosis.
    • HypOtension
    • Renal Failure
    • Sepsis
  43. Diseases of Metabolic Alkalosis.
    • Vomiting
    • Severe diarrhea
    • Diuretics

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