Biology Vocab, Energy & Enzymes

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Biology Vocab, Energy & Enzymes
2014-01-27 22:31:14
college biology vocab energy enzymes
Spring 2014,Biology
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  1. The ______ needed to start a chemical reaction is called the free energy of activation, or activation energy (EA)
    Initial Energy
  2. A metabolic pathway begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product. Each step is catalyzed by?
    Specific enzyme
  3. In ______ energy, matter can be transferred between the system and its surroundings
    An open system
  4. Enzyme specificity results from the complementary fit between the shape of its active site and the _______.
    Substrate shape
  5. The synthesis of protein from amino acids is an example of?
  6. Chemical chaos would result if a cell's metabolic pathways were not tightly regulated. A cell does this by switching on or off the ____ that encode specific enzymes or by regulating the activity of enzymes
  7. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be?
    Created or destroyed
  8. Enzymes do not affect the change in ____; instead, they hasten reactions that would occur eventually
    Free energy
  9. Competitive inhibitors bind to the active site of an enzyme, competing with the substrate. Noncompetitive inhibitors bind to another part of an enzyme, causing the enzyme to change shape and making the active site less effective, Examples include?
    Toxins, poisons, pesticides, and antibiotics
  10. An enzyme's activity can be affected by general environmental factors, such as _____ and the concentrations of the chemicals that specifically influence the enzyme.
    Temperature and pH
  11. The ability to do work to maintain life
  12. Energy of motion
    Kinetic energy
  13. Stored energy
    Potential Energy
  14. Energy that is contained in the chemical bonds of organic molecules (food)
    Chemical energy
  15. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed
    First law of thermodynamics
  16. Energy cannot be changed without a loss of usable energy
    Second law of thermodynamics
  17. The relative amount of disorganization from energy transformation
  18. The sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in a cell
  19. Substances the participate in a reaction
  20. Substances that form as a result of a reaction
  21. The release of energy from a reaction
    Exergonic reactions
  22. Requiring the input of energy in a reaction, ATP (adenosine triphosphate): the energy produced by cell respiration is stored here
    Endergonic reactions
  23. The energy that must be added for a reaction to take place
    Energy of activation
  24. Solute concentration is less than that inside the cell; cell gains water
  25. Factors affecting enzymatic speed
    Substrate concentration, temperature and pH
  26. Chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
  27. Organic, nonprotein molecules including vitamins that assist enzymes in reactions
  28. The loss of electrons during a reaction
  29. Moving substances against their concentration gradient, using energy