general knowledge

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mimime
ID:
258760
Filename:
general knowledge
Updated:
2014-02-04 01:22:37
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drugs
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naplex
Description:
combination of all drugs
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  1. drugs with pulmonary infiltrations inducing drugs "
    • "Go BAN Me!"
    • Gold

    Bleomycin/ Busulphan/ BCNU

    Amiodarone/ Acyclovir/ Azathioprine

    Nitrofurantoin

    Melphalan/ Methotrexate/ Methysergide
  2. Antimuscarinics: members, action
    • "Inhibits Parasympathetic And Sweat": 
    • Ipratropium Pirenzepine Atropine Scopolamine
    •     
    •  Muscarinic receptors at all parasympathetic endings sweat glands in sympathetic.
  3. Teratogenic drugs: major non-antibiotics TAP
    CAP:
    • Thalidomide
    • Androgens
    • Progestins
    • Corticosteroids
    • Aspirin & indomethacin
    • Phenytoin
  4. Steroid side effects CUSHINGOID:
    • Psychosis (mood swings, insomnia)
    • Round moon faces
    • Eye toxicity (cataracts, glaucoma)
    • Diabetes (glucose intolerance)
    • Nausea
    • Infections
    • Skin thining
    • Osteoporosis, obesity
    • Necrosis
    • Electrolytes imbalance
  5. Muscarinic effects
    • SLUG BAM:
    • Salivation/ Secretions/ Sweating
    • Lacrimation
    • Urination
    • Gastrointestinal upset
    • Bradycardia/ Bronchoconstriction/ Bowel movement
    • Abdominal cramps/ Anorexia
    • Miosis
  6. Sulfonamide: major side effects
    • Steven-Johnson syndrome
    • Skin rash
    • Solubility low (causes crystalluria)
    • Serum albumin displaced (causes newborn kernicterus and potentiation of other serum albumin-binders like warfarin)
  7. Epilepsy types, drugs of choice:
    • Military General Attacked Weary Fighters Pronouncing 'Veni Vedi Veci' After Crushing Enemies":
    • · Epilepsy types: Myoclonic Grand mal Atonic West syndrome Focal Petit mal (absence)
    • · Respective drugs: Valproate  Valproate ACTH Carbamazepine Ethosuximide
  8. B1 selective vs. B1-B2 non-selective
    • A through N: B1 selective: Acebutalol, Atenolol, Esmolol, Metoprolol.
    • O through Z: B1, B2 non-selective: Pindolol, Propanalol, Timolol.
  9. Ribavirin: indications RIBAvirin:
    • RSV
    • Influenza B
    • Arenaviruses (Lassa, Bolivian, etc.)
  10. Hypertension: treatment ABCD:
    • ACE inhibitors/ Ang II antagonists (sometimes Alpha agonists also) 
    • Beta blockers
    • Calcium antagonists
    • Diuretics
  11. Narcotics:side effects "SCRAM if you see a drug dealer": Synergistic CNS depression with other drugs
    • Constipation
    • Respiratory depression
    • Addiction
    • Miosis
  12. Sex hormone drugs: male
    "Feminine Males Need Testosterone":

    • Fluoxymesterone
    • Methyltestosterone
    • Nandrolone 
    • Testosterone
  13. Ca++ channel blockers use
    • CA++ MASH:
    • Cerebral vasospasm/ CHF
    • Angina
    • Migranes
    • Atrial flutter, fibrillation
    • Supraventricular tachycardia
    • Hypertension

    · Alternatively: "CHASM":
  14. Disulfiram-like reaction drugs inducing
    • "PM PMT" as in Pre Medical Test in the PM:
    • Procarbazine
    • Metronidazole
    • Cefo (Perazone, Mandole, Tetan).
  15. Delerium-causing drugs
    • "ACUTE CHANGE IN MS:
    • Antibiotics (biaxin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin)
    • Cardiac drugs (digoxin, lidocaine)
    • Urinary incontinence drugs (anticholinergics)
    • Theophylline
    • Ethanol

    • Corticosteroids
    • H2 blockers
    • Antiparkinsonian drugs
    • Narcotics (esp. mepridine)
    • Geriatric psychiatric drugs
    • ENT drugs

    • Insomnia drugs
    • NSAIDs (eg indomethacin, naproxin)

    • Muscle relaxants
    • Seizure medicines
  16. Morphine side-effects
    • "MORPHINE"
    • Myosis
    • Out of it (sedation)
    • Respiratory depression
    • Pneumonia (aspiration)
    • Hypotension
    • Infrequency (constipation, urinary retention) 
    • Nausea
    • Emesis
  17. Therapeutic dosage: toxicity values for most
    commonly monitored medications
    "The magic 2s":

    • Digitalis (.5-1.5) Toxicity = 2.
    • Lithium (.6-1.2) Toxicity = 2.
    • Theophylline (10-20) Toxicity = 20.
    • Dilantin (10-20) Toxicity = 20.
    • APAP (1-30) Toxicity = 200
  18. Thiazides indications
    • "CHIC to usethiazides":
    • CHF
    • Hypertension
    • Insipidous
    • Calcium calculi
  19. Migraine: prophylaxis drugs
    "Very Volatile Pharmacotherapeutic Agents For Migraine Prophylaxis": 

    • Verpamil
    • Valproic acid
    • Pizotifen
    • Amitriptyline
    • Flunarizine
    • Methysergide
    • Propranolol
  20. Adrenoceptors: vasomotor function of alpha vs.
    beta
    Alpha = Constrict.

     

    Beta = Dilate.
  21. Antiarrhythmics: classification
    • I to IV MBA College 
    • · In order of class I to IV:
    • Membrane stabilizers (class I)
    • Beta blockers
    • Action potential widening agents
    • Calcium channel blockers
  22. Opiods: mu receptor effects
    "MD CARES":

    • Miosis
    • Dependency
    • Constipation
    • Analgesics
    • Respiratory depression
    • Euphoria
    • Sedation
  23. Cancer drugs: time of action between
    DNA->mRNA ABCDEF: Alkylating agents
    • Bleomycin
    • Cisplastin
    • Dactinomycin/ Doxorubicin
    • Etoposide
    • Flutamide and other steroids or their antagonists (eg tamoxifen, leuprolide)
  24. Busulfan: features ABCDEF:
    • Alkylating agent
    • Bone marrow suppression s/e
    • CML indication
    • Dark skin (hyperpigmentation) s/e
    • Endrocrine insufficiency (adrenal) s/e
    • Fibrosis (pulmonary) s/e
  25. Tricyclic antidepressants: members worth knowing
    "I have to hide, the CIA is after me":

    •  Clomipramine Imipramine Amitrptyline
    • · If want the next 3 worth knowing, the DNDis also after me:
    • Desipramine Norrtriptyline Doxepin
  26. Torsades de Pointes: drugs causing
    • APACHE:
    •     Amiodarone
    •     Procainamide
    •     Arsenium
    •     Cisapride
    •     Haloperidol
    •     Eritromycin
  27. Serotonin syndrome: components Causes HARM
    • Hyperthermia
    • Autonomic instability (delirium)
    • Rigidity
    • Myoclonus
  28. Tetracycline: teratogenicity
    TEtracycline is a  TEratogen that causes staining of TEeth in the newborn
  29. Patent ductus arteriosus: treatment
    "Come In and Close the door": INdomethacin is used to Close PDA.
  30. Physostigmine vs. neostigmine LMNOP
    • Lipid soluble
    • Miotic
    • Natural
    • Orally absorbed well 

    · Neostigmine, on the contrary, is: 

    • Water soluble
    • Used in myesthenia gravis
    • Synthetic
    • Poor oral absorption
  31. Beta 1 selective blockers
    • "BEAM ONE up, Scotty": 
    • Esmolol
    • Atenolol
    • Metropolol
  32. Antirheumatic agents (disease modifying): members
    CHAMP:

    • Cyclophosphamide
    • Hydroxycloroquine and choloroquinine
    • Auranofin and other gold compounds
    • Methotrexate
    • Penicillamine
  33. Auranofin, aurothioglucose: category and
    indication
    • Aurum is latin for "gold" (gold's chemical
    • symbol is Au).

    •  Generic Aur- drugs (Auranofin, Aurothioglucose) are gold
    • compounds.

    • · If didn't learn yet that gold's indication is
    • rheumatoid arthritis, AUR- Acts Upon Rheumatoid.
  34. Antiarrhythmics: class III members
    • BIAS:
    • Bretylium
    • Ibutilide
    • Amiodarone
    • Sotalol
  35. MAOIs: indications
    MAOI'S

    • Melancholic [classic name for atypical depression]
    • Anxiety
    • Obesity disorders [anorexia, bulemia]
    • Imagined illnesses [hypochondria]
    • Social phobias
    • · Listed in decreasing order of importance.
    • · Note MAOI is inside MelAnchOlIc.
  36. SIADH-inducing drugs
    • Analgesics: opioids, NSAIDs
    • Barbiturates
    • Cyclophosphamide/ Chlorpromazine/ Carbamazepine
    • Diuretic (thiazide)
  37. K+ increasing agents
    • K-BANK: 
    • -K-sparing diuretic
    • -Beta blocker
    • -ACEI
    • -NSAID
    • -K supplement
  38. Reserpine action
    Reserpine depletes the Reserves of catecholamines [and serotonin]
  39. Benzodiazepenes: antidote "Ben is off with the flu":
    Benzodiazepine effects off with Flumazenil.
  40. Succinylcholine: action, use
    Succinylcholine gets Stuck to Ach receptor, then Sucks ions in through open pore. You Suck stuff in through a mouth-tube, and drug is used for intubation.
  41. Beta-blockers: side effects "BBC Loses
    Viewers In Rochedale"
    • Bradycardia
    • Bronchochonstriction
    • claudication
    • lipids
    • vivid dreams & nightmares
    • negative inotropic
    • reduced sensitivity to hypoglycemia
  42. Cisplatin: major side effect, action
    • "Ci-Splat-In":
    • Major side effect: Splat (vomiting sound)--vomiting so severe that anti-nausea drug needed. Action: Goes Into the DNA strand.
  43. Vir-named drugs:
    • use"-vir at start, middle or end means for virus": · Drugs
    • Abacavir,
    • Acyclovir,
    • Amprenavir,
    • Cidofovir,
    • Denavir,
    • Efavirenz,
    • Indavir,
    • Invirase,
    • Famvir,
    • Ganciclovir,
    • Norvir,
    • Oseltamivir,
    • Penciclovir,
    • Ritonavir,
    • Saquinavir,
    • Valacyclovir,
    • Viracept,
    • Viramune,
    • Zanamivir,
    • Zovirax.
  44. Phenobarbitone: side effects
    • Children are annoying (hyperkinesia, irritability, insomnia, aggression).
    • Adults are dosy (sedation, dizziness, drowsiness).
  45. Prazocin: usage
    • Prazocin sounds like an acronym of "praszz zour urine". 
    • Therefore Prazocin used for urinary retention in BPH.
  46. Opioids: effects
    • "BAD AMERICANS":
    • Bradycardia & hypotension
    • Anorexia
    • Diminished pupilary size 

    • Analgesics
    • Miosis
    • Euphoria
    • Respiratory depression
    • Increased smooth muscle activity (biliary tract constriction)
    • Constipation
    • Ameliorate cough reflex
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Sedation
  47. TB: antibiotics used
    STRIPE:

    • STreptomycin
    • Rifampicin
    • Isoniazid
    • Pyrizinamide
    • Ethambutol
  48. Phenytoin: adverse effects PHENYTOIN:
    • P-450 interactions
    • Hirsutism
    • Enlarged gums
    • Nystagmus
    • Yellow-browning of skin
    • Teratogenicity
    • Osteomalacia 
    • Interference with B12 metabolism (hence anemia)
    • Neuropathies: vertigo, ataxia, and headache
  49. Narcotic antagonists
    The Narcotic Antagonists are NAloxone and NAltrexone. · Important clinically to treat narcotic overdose.
  50. Thrombolytic agents USA:
    Urokinase Streptokinase Alteplase (tPA)
  51. Routes of entry: most rapid ways meds/toxins
    enter body
    • "Stick it, Sniff it, Suck it, Soak it":
    • Stick = Injection
    • Sniff = inhalation
    • Suck = ingestion
    • Soak = absorption
  52. Asthma drugs: inhibitor action
    zAfirlukast: Antagonist of LT

     

    zIlueton: Inhibitor of 5-LO
  53. Direct sympathomimetic catecholamines DINED
    • Dopamine
    • Isoproterenol
    • Norepinephrine
    • Epinephrine
    • Dobutamine
  54. Anticholinergic side effects
    • "Know the ABCD'S of anticholinergic side
    • effects":

    •  
    • Anorexia
    • Blurry vision
    • Constipation/ Confusion
    • Dry Mouth
    • Sedation/ Stasis of urine
  55. Atropine use: tachycardia or bradycardia
    "A goes with B": Atropine used clinically to treat Bradycardia.
  56. Benzodiazepenes: antidote "Ben is off with
    the flu":
    Benzodiazepine effects off with Flumazenil.
  57. Respiratory depression inducing drugs "STOP
    breathing":
    Sedatives and hypnotics

    Trimethoprim

    Opiates

    Polymyxins
  58. Lithium: side effects  LITH:
    Leukocytosis

    Insipidus [diabetes insipidus, tied to polyuria]

    Tremor/ Teratogenesis

    Hypothyroidism
  59. Methyldopa: side effects METHYLDOPA:
    Mental retardation

    Electrolyte imbalance

    Tolerance

    Headache/ Hepatotoxicity psychological upset

    Lactation in female

    Dry mouth

    Edema

    Parkinsonism

    Anaemia (haemolytic)
  60. nonselective beta-blockers
    not BEAMAN
  61. Antibiotics contraindicated during
    pregnancy  MCAT:
    Metronidazole

    Chloramphenicol

    Aminoglycoside

    Tetracycline
  62. Propythiouracil (PTU):
    Mechanism It inhibits PTU:

    Peroxidase/ Peripheral deiodination

    Tyrosine iodination Union (coupling)
  63. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors:
    Phenelzine

    Isocarboxazid

    Tranylcypromine ·       


    A pit of despair, since MAOs treat depression
  64. Amiodarone: action, side effects 6 P's:
    Prolongs action potential duration

    Photosensitivity

    Pigmentation of skin

    Peripheral neuropathy

     

    Pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis

    •  
    • Peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 is inhibited
    • -> hypothyroidism
  65. Steroids: side effects BECLOMETHASONE:
    Buffalo hump

    Easy bruising

    Cataracts

    Larger appetite

    Obesity

    Moonface

    Euphoria

    Thin arms & legs

    Hypertension/ Hyperglycaemia

    Avascular necrosis of femoral head

    Skin thinning

    Osteoporosis

    Negative nitrogen balance

    Emotional liability
  66. Hepatic necrosis: drugs causing focal to massive necrosis
    Valproic acid

    Acetaminophen

    Halothane
  67. Zero order kinetics drugs (most common ones)
    "PEAZ (sounds like pees) out a constant amount":
    Phenytoin

    Ethanol

    Aspirin

    Zero order
  68. Zafirlukast, Montelukast
    • Anti-Lukotrienes for Asthma.
    • Zafirlukast antagonizes leukotriene-4.
  69. Nitrofurantoin: major side effects NitroFurAntoin:
    Neuropathy (peripheral neuropathy)

    Fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis)

    Anemia (hemolytic anemia)
  70. Sodium valproate: side effects VALPROATE:
    Vomiting

    Alopecia

    Liver toxicity

    Pancreatitis/ Pancytopenia

    Retention of fats (weight gain)

    Oedema (peripheral oedema)

    Appetite increase

    Tremor

    Enzyme inducer (liver)
  71. Osmotic diuretics: members GUM:
    Glycerol

    Urea

    Mannitol
  72. Benzodiazepenes: drugs which decrease their metabolism
    Isoniazid

    Oral contraceptive pills

    Cimetidine

    •  
    • · These drugs increase calming effect of BZDs by retarding metabolism.
  73. Gynaecomastia-causing drugs DISCOS:
    Digoxin

    Isoniazid

    Spironolactone

    Cimetidine

    Oestrogens

    Stilboestrol
  74. Teratogenic drugs "W/ TERATOgenic":
    Warfarin

    Thalidomide

    Epileptic drugs: phenytoin, valproate, carbamazepine

    Retinoid

    ACE inhibitor

    Third element: lithium

    OCP and other hormones (eg danazol)
  75. Benzodiazepines: actions
    Sedation

    anti-Convulsant

    anti-Anxiety

    Muscle relaxant

    Not by brain: No antipsychotic activity.
  76. Benzodiazapines: ones not metabolized by the liver (safe to use in liver failure) LOT:
    Out of the Liver

    • O: Oxazepam
    • T: temazepan
    • L: lorazepam
  77. Cholinergics (eg organophosphates): effects
    If you know these, you will be "LESS DUMB": 


    Lacrimation

    Excitation of nicotinic synapses

    Salivation

    Sweating

    Diarrhea

    Urination

    Micturition

    Bronchoconstriction
  78. Morphine: effects MORPHINES:
    Miosis

    Orthostatic hypotension

    Respiratory depression

    Pain supression

    Histamine release/ Hormonal alterations

    Increased ICT

    Nausea

    Euphoria

    Sedation
  79. Lead poisoning: presentation
    Anemia

    Basophilic stripping

    Colicky pain

    Diarrhea

    Encephalopathy

    Foot drop

    Gum (lead line)
  80. Depression: 5 drugs causing it PROMS:
    Propranolol

    Reserpine

    Oral contraceptives

    Methyldopa

    Steroids
  81. Ipratropium: action Atropine is buried in the middle:
    IprAtropium, so it behaves like Atropine.
  82. SSRIs: side effects SSRI:
    Serotonin syndrome

    Stimulate CNS

    Reproductive disfunctions in male

    Insomnia
  83. Beta-1 vs Beta-2 receptor location
    "You have 1 heart and 2 lungs"
  84. Enoxaprin (prototype low molecular weight heparin): action
    acts on factor Xa
  85. Morphine: effects at mu receptor PEAR:
    Physical dependence

    Euphoria

    Analgesia

    Respiratory depression
  86. Vigabatrin: mechanism Vi-GABA-Tr-In:
    Via GABA Transferase Inhibition
  87. Lupus: drugs inducing it HIP:
    Hydralazine

    INH

    Procanimide
  88. Aspirin: side effects ASPIRIN:
    Asthma

    Salicyalism

    Peptic ulcer disease/ Phosphorylation-oxidation uncoupling/ PPH/ Platelet disaggregation/ Premature closure of PDA

    Intestinal blood loss

    Reye's syndrome

    Idiosyncracy

    Noise (tinnitus)
  89. Bleomycin: action
    Bleomycin works by fragmenting DNA

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