PSY 201 Ch1 Set A (History of Psych)

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PSY 201 Ch1 Set A (History of Psych)
2014-01-27 23:18:08
Intro Psych

1st set of chapter 1
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  1. Over ____ psychologists, worldwide
  2. Two major psychology organizations:
    The American Psychological Association and The Association for Psychological Science
  3. General symbol for psychology
    φ - Psi
  4. Where psychologists work
    schools, mental health facilities, private practice, businesses, gov't organizations, etc...
  5. Definition of psychology
    the SCIENTIFIC study of behavior and mental processes
  6. 3 important terms in psychology
    science (research), behavior, mental processes (thoughts, cognition, mind)
  7. Birth date of psychology
    Around 1879, the year the first formal lab was established
  8. Roots of psychology traced to
    philosophy and physiology (scientific aspect)
  9. Philosophy - Early Greek Philosophers
    Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, etc.
  10. Philosophy - The Governing Principles
    Monism vs Dualism; Nature vs. Nurture
  11. Monism
    mind and body are one; DESCARTES - believed that knowledge and ideas are innate
  12. Dualism
    mind and body are separate; PLATO - believed the soul could exist separately from the body
  13. Nature
    DESCARTES; knowledge is innate; birth
  14. Nurture
    LOCKE; knowledge is not innate; tabula rasa - mind is a blank slate; experience, environment
  15. Physiology - Experimental/empirical methods
    scientific aspects of Psychology; HELMHOLTZ, FECHNER; psychophysics
  16. Structuralism
    WILHELM WUNDT; TICHNER; self-observation; shown a stimulus (light or sound) and describe the sensations and feelings that stimulus elicited
  17. Wilhelm Wundt
    father of psychology; work focused on consiousness; transformed psychology into a science by applying scientific methods; first psychology research lab (to study consciousness)
  18. Structuralism - to study psych:
    1. strip perception of its associations; 2. break down into component parts; 3. find and study the "atoms" of thought; 4. ------- analyze the small parts
  19. introspection
    means "looking inward"; how you perceive it
  20. Titchener
    student of Wundt; studied consciousness; used introspection (he classified it that way); slightly different approach than Wundt; breaks consciousness down in 3 basic elements
  21. Titchener's 3 basic elements of consciousness
    1. Physical Sensation (sights and sounds); 2. Feelings (likes and dislikes); 3. Images (memories/past experiences or dreams)
  22. Functionalism
    WILLIAM JAMES (founder); OBJECTED TO STRUCTURALISM; Wundt's "atoms of experience" simply do not exist; study the functions of consciousness; weave associations; *How consciousness allows us to adapt (how they connect us to how we live)*; --------- this line points direction
  23. William James
    first American born psychologist; professor at Harvard; published textbook in 1890
  24. Individual Differences/Psychometrics
    SIR FRANCIS GALTON; ALFRED BINET; psychometrics - quantify traits and characteristics; testing; Intelligence Testing Movement
  25. Sir Francis Galton
    psychometrics; studied eminent scientists in England; found they were all related; "genius" might be hereditary; madness - have to become mad to be truly mad, engaged in paranoia and had to stop because he became paranoid
  26. Psychoanalytic
    SIGMUND FREUD; Erik Erikson; emphasis on unconscious motivations and early childhood experiences
  27. Sigmund Freud
    some of his patients' problems were mental (~physical); explained personality and behavior through psychological processes; developed a theory of personality (stages of psychosexual development) and a type of psychotherapy (psychoanalysis); Levels of consciousness
  28. Levels of consciousness (iceburg analogy)
    1. conscious - things aware of; 2. preconscious - storehouse of all memory; 3. unconscious - things unaware
  29. Erik Erikson
    worked with Freud's daughter; no formal training; looked at social aspects of personality using LIFESPAN APPROACH
  30. Behaviorism
    JOHN WATSON; B.F. SKINNER; study only observable behavior; actions/overt behavior; explain behavior via learning principles; objected to: Structuralism, Functionalism and Psychoanalytic
  31. John Watson
    1st student to receive a doctorate in psychology from the University of Chicago; founder of behaviorism; believed should not study consciousness, only things that are observable and measureable; Conditioning - learning/classical conditioning (Pavlov-dogs)
  32. B.F. Skinner
    observable and measurable behavior; interested in changing behavior through conditioning; reinforcement and punishment; operant conditioning (consequences)
  33. Gestalt Psychology
    German influence; WERTHEIMER, KOFFKA, and KOHLER; objected to breaking things down (structuralism); "Gestalt" - whole or form, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts; tendency to see patterns and look for meaning; ------- this is a line, brain closes off areas to make sense of what we see
  34. Humanism
    CARL ROGERS and ABRAHAM MASLOW; objected to psychoanalytic and behaviorism; focused on unconscious (negative view); positive view of individuals; affirming one's dignity and goodness; behaviorism was too mechanical and removed human aspect; we have free will
  35. self actualization
    reaching one's fullest potential; becoming the best individual one can be
  36. Human aspect/we have free will
    we can choose whether or not to do something
  37. Humanism today: Positive psychology movement
    emphasizes the study of human strengths, fulfillment, and optimal living; focuses on what's good with the world
  38. Cognitive Perspective
    "cogitare" - to think; believes actions are governed by thought; PIAGET (cognitive development); Information processing approach
  39. Piaget (cognitive development)
    examines the nature of the mind; changes in problem solving abilities
  40. Information processing approach
    how we process information; encode, store and retrieve info.; memory research
  41. Sociocultural Perspective
    LEV VYGOTSKY; social environment and culture influence our behavior, thoughts and feelings; each new generation must internalize the norms and values of the group
  42. culture
    norms (rules) that each group develops; transmission of values, beliefs, behaviors, customs and traditions from one generation to the next
  43. cross-cultural/cultural psychology
    looks at differences and similarities among people of diverse cultures; ex: individualism (separation, uniqueness, express self) vs. collectivism (connect and be like other, restrain self)
  44. Biological Perspective
    how the brain and other bodily functions regulate behavior; mind-body connection; Behavioral Neuroscience (physiological psychology); Behavior Genetics; Evolutionary Psychology
  45. Behavioral Neuroscience
    chemicals in body and brain processes; hormones (endocrine system); neurotransmitters (brain)
  46. Behavior Genetics
    genetic factors influence behavioral tendencies; research on twins
  47. Evolutionary Psychology
    stresses natural selection; inherited traits give some an advantage over others; qualities of our mates