micro definitions

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  1. the study of disease
  2. the study of the cause of disease
  3. development of disease
  4. colonization of the body by pathogens
  5. abnormal state in which your body isn't functioning normally
  6. microbes that grow in "optimum growth" (37 degrees C)
  7. microbes that like the cold
  8. microbes that like it hot
  9. microbes that like it REALLY hot
  10. microbes that like salt (15%)
  11. microbes that survive in the presence of oxygen (use oxygen in ETS)
    obligate aerobes
  12. microbes tha cannot survive in oxygen
    obligate anaerobes
  13. microbes that can live in presence or absence of oxygen
    facultative anaerobes
  14. microbes that require oxygen, but in low concentrations
  15. The destruction of vegetative pathogens but not bacterial endospores.
    disinfection (usually used only on inanimate objects)
  16. The complete removal or destruction of all viable microorganisms.
    sterilization (used on inanimate objects)
  17. Chemicals applied to body surfaces to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens.
  18. Chemical and physical methods that reduce the microbial load on skin.
  19. Destruction of all forms of microbial life.
  20. Lowers the microbial counts on eating and drinking utensils to safe public levels.
  21. inhibits the growth (certain antibiotics)
  22. kills the microorganisms (certain antibiotics)
  23. bacterial contamination vs. free of pathogens
    sepsis vs. antisepsis
  24. steam under pressure or sterilizing gas such as ethylene oxide
    autoclave (15psi at 121C)
  25. kills vegetative bacterial and fungal pathogens; most virus within 10 min (for dishes, etc & equipment)
    boiling or flowing steam
  26. Heat treatment for milk 72C for 15 sec; doesn't kill all bacteria but kills pathogens and most nonpathogens
  27. removes organisms bigger than .22um; for liquids that could be destroyed by heat
  28. used in surgical hand scrubs; kills vegetative cells and viruses with an envelope
  29. organism that must obtain carbon in organic form
  30. organism that uses CO2 as carbon source
  31. organisms that use light and CO2 as energy/carbon source
  32. organisms that use light and organic substances to obtain energy/carbon
  33. organisms that use inorganic compounds (H2, NH3, etc) and few bacteria for energy/carbon source
    chemoautotrophs (or lithotrophs)
  34. organisms that use organic compounds and most bacteria at energy/carbon source
    chemoheterotrophs (or heterotrophs)
  35. Effective dry heat temp and time
    120C for >2 hrs
  36. bacteriostatic effect; decreased chemical reaction
  37. the most effective form of incineration/oxidation
  38. drugs against parasitic worms
  39. natural products of fungi, actinomycetes, and bacteria which inhibit growth of microbes
  40. way of classifying organisms; kills organisms
  41. way of classifying organisms; prevents organisms from increasing
  42. range of activity that covers one group (gram +)
    narrow spectrum
  43. range of activity that cover gram + and systemic, enteric (gram neg rods), and urinary tract gram neg
    moderate spectrum
  44. range of activity that covers gram + and gram neg
    narrow/moderate spectrum
  45. range of activity that covers everything except mycobacteria (waxy) and pseudomonas (gamma proteobacteria)
    broad spectrum
  46. range of activity that covers mycobacteria (i.e. TB)
  47. one drug counters the effect of the other
  48. 2 drugs working together have a better effect than each by themselves
  49. 2 drugs is equal to sum of drugs taken separately
  50. symbiosis in which both organisms benefit
  51. symbiosis in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed
  52. symbiosis in which one organism benefits and nothing happens to the other
  53. a change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of a disease
  54. a change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease
  55. a specific group of signs tans symptoms that accompany a disease
  56. a disease that is easily spread from one host to another
  57. fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a specific time
  58. fraction of population having a specific disease at a given time
  59. disease that occurs occasionally in a population
    sporadic disease
  60. disease constantly present in a population
    endemic disease
  61. disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time
  62. disease acquired by many hosts worldwide in a short time
    pandemic disease
  63. immunity in most of a population
    herd immunity
  64. disease in which symptoms develop rapidly
    acute disease
  65. disease that develops slowly
    chronic disease
  66. disease that shows symptoms between acute and chronic
  67. disease with a period of no symptoms when the patient is inactive
    latent disease
  68. they are capable of causing disease in healthy persons with normals immune defenses
    true pathogens
  69. they cause disease when the host's defenses are compromised or when they grow in part of the body that is not natural to them
    opportunistic pathogens
  70. toxins in the blood
  71. viruses in the blood
  72. acute infection that causes initial illness
    primary infection
  73. opportunistic infection after a primary (predisposing) infection
    secondary infection
  74. no noticeable signs or symptoms (inapparent infection)
    subclinical disease
  75. when pathogens are limited to a small area of the body
    local infection
  76. when an infection is throughout the body, usually through bloodstream
    systemic infection
  77. systemic infection that began as a local infection
    focal infection
  78. growth of bacteria in the blood (multiplying)
  79. presence of bacteria in the blood
  80. a parasite that causes disease
  81. a departure from the normals stage of health due to the presence or growth of a microorganism
    infectious disease
  82. the ability to cause disease
  83. ability of the pathogen to spread to adjacent or other tissues
  84. the ability of an organism to establish a focal point of infection
  85. the pathogen's ability to produce toxins
  86. transmission of a disease by an inanimate reservoir
  87. transmission of disease by arthropods (through stinging, biting, etc)
  88. transmission of disease by arthropods that carries pathogen on feet
  89. transmission in which the pathogen reproduces in vector
  90. the study of where and when diseases occur
  91. the incidence of specific notifiable disease
  92. deaths from notifiable diseases
  93. number of people affected/total population in a given time period
    morbidity rate
  94. number of deaths from a disease/total population in a given time
    mortality rate
  95. virulence factor that digest epithelial tissues and permit invasion of pathogens
  96. virulence factors that have capacity to produce toxins at the site of muliplication
  97. help to kill or avoid phagocytes, include leukocidins and capsules
  98. substances that contribute to pathogenicity
  99. ability to produce a toxin
  100. presence of toxin in the host's blood
  101. inactivated toxin used in a vaccine
  102. antibodies against a specific toxin
  103. a specific reaction to foreign substances, including microbes and macromolecules
  104. the cells and molecules responsible for immunity and their cooperative and coordinated responses to the introduction of foreign substances
    immune system
  105. B cells that have been stimulated by antigen to mature and produce antibody
    plasma cells
  106. a molecule recognized by the immune system
  107. produced by liver and secreted into the blood stream during infections
    acute phase proteins
  108. a series of 20 serum proteins which act to bind to foreign particles and cause cell lysis
  109. a cytokine produces by myeloid cells (leukocytes) which is induced by bacterial endotoxin
    tumor necrosis factor
  110. low molecular weight glycoproteins that function in cell to cell communication and regulation of the development of immune responses and other body systems
  111. chief stimulator of acute phase proteins
  112. secrete by TH cells and activates both B and TH1 cells
  113. the body's reaction to injury which acts to direct the immune response to the site of injury
  114. migration of cells out of blood vessels into the tissues
  115. migration in response to specific chemicals at the site of injury or infection
  116. mediated by antibodies that are secreted into the blood that are responsible for specific recognition and elimination of foreign substances
    humoral immunity
  117. T cells that assist other T and B cells, conductor of immune response
    TH cells
  118. T cells that destroy foreign or abnormal cells by secreting perforins (type of protein) that lyse cells.
    Tc Cells
  119. T cells that are responsible for allergies occurring several hours or days after contact
    TD cells
  120. T cells the limit the actions of other T cells and B cells
    Ts cells
  121. Immune system that consists of aggregates of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages located in intestine, lymphoid follicles in the appendix, tonsils, and respiratory tract.
    mucosal immune system
  122. Immune response geared towards tolerance and dampening.
    intestinal mucosal
  123. The immune system that consists of intraepidermal lymphocytes and accessory cells known as Langerhans cells; the site on immune response to topically applied antigens
    cutaneous immune system
  124. The antibody that is the predominant immunoglobulin in blood, lymph, CSF, and peritoneal fluid and passes into placenta; small and highest in amount
  125. The antibody that is the first immunoglobulin produced in an immune repsonse; very large molecule in blood stream, too large to go somewhere else
  126. The antibody that is present in mucous secretions of the respiratory, GI, and urinary tract; small amount; related to breast milk, protection
  127. The antibody that protects from parasitic infections; especially reactive in individuals who are allergic; binds to mast cells and causes release of histamine and other granuals
  128. The antibody related to cell surface molecules
  129. an exaggerated response; related to allergies, autoimmune disease, rejecting organ transplant
  130. related to cancers and immunodeficiencies
  131. proteins that are soluble and get through mucosal layer, permeability due to enzymes
  132. in the test tube
    in vitro
  133. in the body
    in vivo
  134. aka hives
  135. aka runny nose
    allergic rhinitis
  136. when an inhaled antigen activates mast cells and the TH2 cells in the airway; inflammation occurs
  137. atom or molecule that contains a combination of atoms other than carbon or hydrogen
    inorganic molecules
  138. molecule that contains carbon and hydrogen atoms and are usually the products of living thing
    organic nutrients
  139. organisms that live in an aqueous environment experience ____
    osmotic pressure
  140. food preservative by causing loss of water and leads to plasmolysis
    addition of salts or sugars
  141. to exploit differences in structure and metabolism of pathogens and host cells (to kill organisms not man!)
    selective toxicity
  142. target enzyme or other sites may be altered--lower affinity for antibacterial but target can still function adequately
    altered target
  143. by increasing impermeability of cell wass (loss of bacterial proteins--porins) or by pumping drug out of cell (efflux)
    altered uptake
  144. production of enzymes which modify or destroy the antibacterial agent
    drug inactivation
  145. smallest concentration of drug that visibly inhibits growth
    minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
  146. the ratio of the dose of the drug that is toxic to humans as compared to its minimum effective dose
    therapeutic index
  147. contact that requires close association between infected and susceptible host
    direct contact
  148. contact spread by fomites (any inanimate object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms)
    indirect contact
  149. transmission via airborne droplets (coughing, sneezing, etc)
    droplet transmission
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micro definitions
micro definitions
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