Statistics Ch. 1

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Statistics Ch. 1
2014-01-27 23:26:33
Statistics Basics

Statistics basics
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  1. Statistics is:
    Collecting, organizing, summarizing and analyzing data.
  2. Statistics provides a measure of...
  3. The process of statistics... (4 things)
    Identify, collect, organize, conclude
  4. Numerical summary of population...
  5. Numerical summary of sample...
  6. Descriptive statistics describes data through... (3 things)
    Numbers, graphs, tables
  7. Name, label, category. Not ranked
  8. Name, label, category. Is ranked
  9. Name, label, category. Difference of rank is meaningful
  10. Name, label, category. Difference of rank is meaningful and zero means the absence of quantity.
  11. Explanatory variable affects the value of a
    Response Variable
  12. Measures response variable without changing the explanatory variables.
    Observational Study
  13. Observational studies allow researchers to claim _______ not ________
    association, causation
  14. Not separating two explanatory variables
  15. A variable that affects the response variable but is not considered
    Lurking Variable
  16. A researcher assigns the individuals in a study to a certain _group____, intentionally ___changes__ the value of the explanatory variable, and then records the value of the __response___variable for each group.
    Designed Experiment
  17. The data are collected by looking back in time or looking at existing records.
  18. The data are collected over time.
  19. Observational studies that collect information about individuals at a specific ___point_____ in time, or over a very ___short___ period of time
    Cross sectional (Prospective)
  20. These studies are retrospective. In case-control studies, individuals that have certain characteristics are matched with those that do not.
    Case Control (Retrospective)
  21. observed over a period of time. Over this time period, characteristics about the individuals are recorded.
    Cohort (Prospective)
  22. process of using ___chance________ to select individuals from a population to be included in the sample.
    Random sampling
  23. equally likely ___chance____
    Simple Random Sample
  24. obtained by __separating________ the population into non-overlapping groups called strata and then obtaining ____a simple random sample_________ from each stratum.
    Stratified Sample
  25. obtained by selecting every kth individual from the population. The first individual selected corresponds to a random number between 1 and k.
    Systematic Sample
  26. Systematic sample- find k
    N/n, round down to integer.
  27. obtained by selecting all individuals within a randomly selected collection or group of individuals. One or more groups is chosen at random. All individuals in chosen group are sampled.
    Cluster Sample
  28. the technique used to obtain the individuals to be in the sample tends to ______Favor__ one part of the population _over___ another.
    Sampling Bias
  29. Convenience sample, voluntary response sample and undercoverage are _____ bias
  30. exists when individuals selected to be in the sample who do not respond to the survey have different opinions from those who do
    Nonresponse bias
  31. exists when the answers on a survey do not reflect the true feeling of the respondent.
    Response bias
  32. Design in which each experimental unit is randomly assigned to a treatment
    Completely Random Design
  33. design in which the experimental units are paired up.
    Matched Pairs Design
  34. Design is used when the experimental units are divided into homogeneous groups
    Randomized block design