PSY 201 Ch2 Set A (Scientific Research)

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nisab44
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258784
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PSY 201 Ch2 Set A (Scientific Research)
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2014-01-28 00:43:17
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intro psych
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1st set of chapter 2
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  1. Critical thinking and scientific research
    scientific research requires critical thinking; curiosity, skepticism, questioning
  2. critical thinking
    assessing claims, making judgements, based well-supported evidence
  3. 4 main goals of psychological research
    1. to DESCRIBE behavior and mental processes; 2. to make accurate PREDICTIONS about them; 3. to demonstrate some CONTROL over them; 4. to EXPLAIN how and why behavior and mental processes occur
  4. Steps in Scientific Investigation
    1. Define the problem; 2. formulate the hypothesis; 3. Select a research method and design the study; 4. Select your subjects/conduct study; 5. Analyze the data; 6. Write up the results
  5. Define the problem
    step 1; what are you trying to find out? MUST BE IN THE FORM OF A QUESTION; ex: Does heart rate increase with watching violent movies?
  6. Problem questions come from
    observations, curiosity, past research (readings), skepticism, theories, and other studies of folklore
  7. Formulate the hypothesis
    step 2; educated guess; a specific prediction about some phenomenon; a testable prediction; "statement of the expected relationship between the variables of interest"; what we think will happen; Ex: If someone watches a violent movie, then they will have a higher heart rate than those who dont.
  8. operational definition of variables (operationalize)
    exact operations or methods used; variables in terms that they can be observed and measured; amount of something used, way something's measured
  9. Select a Method/Design the Study
    test your hypothesis; five basic methods: experimental method, correlational method, survey method, ___, ___
  10. Experimental method (experiment)
    a controlled means of studying the relationship between the variables of interest; two variables: independent and dependent
  11. independent variable
    the variable the experimenter changes or manipulates
  12. dependent variable
    the response or results variable; subject's response; what was measured
  13. Easy way to ID independent/dependent variables
    "The effects of ______(independent) on ______(dependent)."
  14. Extraneous variables or confounds
    things that could impact the findings (or dependent variable) other than the independent variable; want to hold these variables constant
  15. Negating extraneous variables
    random assignment (or randomizing); each subject has an equal chance of being in either an experimental or control group; distribute confounding (extraneous) variables across groups (equally); minimizing chance of distorted/biased results; RANDOM ASSIGNMENT
  16. random assignment
    one means of control; establishes cause and effect; randomly assign groups to independent variable
  17. experimental group
    receives the independent variable/treatment; How does the independent variable affect them?; participant group
  18. control group
    receives everything the experimental group receives except the independent variable/no treatment; may receive a placebo; comparison group
  19. Advantage to research method
    control; cause and effect
  20. Disadvantage to research method
    can't manipulate everything; ethical concerns;
  21. Correlational Method
    means of studying the magnitude and direction of the relationship between the variables of interest; measure the variables and plot them to determine the relationship; use a statistic to determine the strength (magnitude) and direction of the relationship
  22. correlation coefficient
    between +1.00 and -1.00; closest to either = strong correlation; closest to 0 = weak or no correlation
  23. Correlational variables
    no real independent and dependent variable; usually called grouping, categorical or classification variables; may still be referred to as independent and dependent variables
  24. Three types of correlations
    positive, negative and no correlation
  25. positive correlation
    as one variable of interest increases, the other variable of interest increases; change in same direction
  26. negative correlation
    as one variable of interest increases, the other variable of interest decreases
  27. no correlation
    there is no relationship between the variables of interest; correlation coefficient closer to .00
  28. Advantages of correlational methods
    testing predictions; evaluating theories
  29. Disadvantages of correlational methods
    two-way causality (bi-directionality problem), third variable problem
  30. Two-way causality (bi-directional problem)
    can't establish causality
  31. Third variable problem
    may be an artificial relationship; changes in two variables may be due to another variable
  32. Survey Method
    information is obtained by asking many people a standard set of questions; ask about attitudes, opinions and behaviors; self-report measures; polling/questionnaire (written survey); interview (oral survey)
  33. Advantages of survey method
    gathers large amounts of data; quick; inexpensive
  34. Disadvantages of survey method
    poorly phrased questions; response biases (social desirability)

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