AP Psych Midterm Review

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AP Psych Midterm Review
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2014-01-28 04:07:56
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AP Psych Midterm Review
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  1. John Locke
    believed in tabula rasa
  2. Tabula Rasa
    the mind is a blank slate; Nurture over nature; knowledge through observation enlightenment changes way people think
  3. William Wundt
    • Father of Experiment Psychology
    • 1st Psych lab
    • Examined reaction to sensory stimuli
  4. Introspection
    • used by William Wundt/Tictchner
    • self reflection observation of one's own sensation and feelings
    • Established structuralism
  5. Structuralism
    mind combines objective sensations and subjective feelings
  6. William James
    First Psych textbook
  7. Functionalism
    • Established by William James
    • heavier patterns are learned and maintained because they are successful
  8. Humanistic Psychology
    • started by Maslow and Rogers
    • individual choice and free will
    • focuses on positive healthy growth potential
    • Attempt to seek self-actualization
  9. Psychodynamic Perspective
    • started by Sigmund Freud
    • Behavior comes from unconscious drives
    • Childhood
  10. Social-Cultural Perspective
    Focus on how your culture effects your behavior
  11. Clinical Psychology
    Focuses on diagnosis and treatment of people with psychological disorders
  12. Hindsight bias
    the tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that you knew it all along
  13. Replication
    repeating an earlier research study
  14. Empirical Approach
    basing decisions or conclusions on observable evidence
  15. Case Study
    Where one or a few persons (or situations) are observed in depth
  16. Naturalistic Observation
    observing and recording behavior in natural environment vs. in a lab
  17. Correlation v. causation
    • Correleation does not imply causation
    • Detects relationships between variables
    • Positive Correlation- the variables go in the same direction
  18. Double-blind procedure
    experimental procedure in which neither the subjects nor experimenter know the critical aspects of the experiment
  19. Mean
    average
  20. Median
    number in the middle
  21. Mode
    number appears most frequently
  22. Range
    Difference between highest and lowest numbers
  23. Standard Deviation
    • the variance of scores around the mean
    • Higher SD=more spread out data
  24. Action potential
    Electric charge that spreads down the length of a neuron after the threshold is achieved
  25. Threshold
    level of neurotransmitters required to fire a neuron
  26. Synaptic gaps
    Space in-between neurons where neurotransmitters are sent across to cause the next neuron to fire
  27. Neurotransmitters
    chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons
  28. Synapses
    space between the terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of the next neuron
  29. Neurons
    neural cell
  30. Reuptake
    reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron
  31. “Fight-or-flight” response
    • physiological reaction in response to stress; increased heart rate and blood pressure, elevation of glucose levels, slow down digestion;
    • sympthatetic nervous system
  32. Dual-processing brain
    brain functions on a conscious and unconscious level
  33. Chromosomes
    threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain genes
  34. Genes
    the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
  35. DNA
    a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
  36. Genome
    the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
  37. Identical twins
    more likely to have similar personalities
  38. Mating preferences
    evolutionary psychologists are more likely to predict that men will mary women who are younger than they are
  39. Selective attention
    the focusing on conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
  40. The Absolute Threshold
    the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular event half of the time
  41. Cochlea
    fluid-filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
  42. Locating sounds
    time lag between left and right auditory stimulation is important
  43. Biopsychosocial approach
    an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological and social psychology
  44. Olfactory receptors
    detect odor molecules
  45. Parapsychology
    the study of ESP
  46. Sleep apnea
    sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing of instances of shallow or infrequent breathing during sleep
  47. Narcolepsy
    a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks
  48. Tolerance
    • reduced effect of a drug resulting from its regular use
    • may develop physical dependance
  49. Withdrawal
    • dependence on psychoactive drugs can be psycho/phsyical
    • Psych dependent endives feel desire for drug
    • Phsy dependent experience negative physical effects without the drug
  50. Depressants
    • slow down body processes
    • slow down reaction and judgment
    • alcohol, barbituarates
    • sometimes accompanied by euphoria
  51. Habituation
    decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
  52. Higher-order conditioning
    when you associate a new neutral stimulus with a conditioned stimulus
  53. Extinction
    the diminishing of a conditioned response
  54. Generalization
    the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
  55. US
    • unconditioned stimulus
    • Ex:Food
  56. UR
    • unconditioned response
    • Ex: Salivating
  57. CS
    • conditioned stimulus
    • Ex: Bell
  58. CR
    • Conditioned response
    • Ex: Salivating
  59. Shaping
    the process of reinforcing successively closer approximations to a desired behavior
  60. Positive reinforcement
    adding something pleasant for a desired behavior
  61. Negative reinforcement
    removal of something negative for a desired behavior
  62. Fixed Ratio Schedule
    reinforces a response after a specified number of responses
  63. Variable Ratio Schedule
    reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
  64. Fixed Interval Schedule
    reinforces a response after a certain about of time has passed
  65. Variable Interval Schedule
    reinforces a response after a random amount of time
  66. Intrinsic Motivation
    a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
  67. Extrinsic motivation
    a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
  68. Mirror neurons
    frontal lobe neurons become active when watching an action be done
  69. Short Term Memory
    activated memory that holds a few items briefly +/- 7
  70. Long Term Memory
    relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
  71. Sensory Memory
    the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
  72. Mnemonic device
    • memory aid for encoding
    • specific example of chunking
  73. Chunking
    organizing items in familiar manageable units; often occurs automatically
  74. Amnesia
    the loss of memory
  75. Déjà vu
    I've experienced this before
  76. Retroactive Interference
    can't remember the old
  77. Proactive Interference
    can't remember the new
  78. Misinformation effect
    the incorporation of misleading information into one's memory of an event
  79. Heuristics
    simple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgments efficiently
  80. Algorithms
    a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
  81. Insight
    a sudden realization of the solution to a problem
  82. Representativeness heuristic
    our tendency to judge the likelihood of category membership by how closely an object of event resembles a particular prototype
  83. Language
    spoken, written, or signed words and the ways they are combined to communicate meaning
  84. Instinct
    a complex, unlearned, and fixed pattern of behavior common to all members of a species
  85. Drive reduction theory
    the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
  86. Optimum arousal theory
    suggests our behavior is motivated by a need to maintain an optimum level of arousal
  87. Incentive
    a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

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