neurobio 3 ch 2 of Bear book: neurons and glia part 1 (neuron doctrine ribosome rough ER unipolar
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What features of the axon terminal differentiate it from other parts of the neuron?
It has a high number of mitochondria, it has an abundance of membrane proteins that are different from that of other parts of the cell, it has synatpic vesicles, and it doesn't contain microtubules.
What are the different classifications of neurons based on the number of neurites?
unipolar, bipolar, multipolar
What are the different classifications of neurons based on the shapes of the dendritic trees that emanate from them?
stellate cells (star shaped) and pyramidal cells
what are the different classifications of neurons based on the axon length?
golgi type I (long axons) and golgi type II (short axons)
what is the function of astrocytes?
they regulate the chemical content of the space surrounding neurons. They influence neurite growth. They fill the spaces between neurons.
What is slow axoplasmic transport?
the slow movement of material through the axon at a rate of 1-10 mm per day.
what is fast axoplasmic transport?
the fast movement of material through the axon at a rate as high as 1000 mm per day
what is anterograde transport and which protein does it require?
anterograde transport involves the movement of material from the soma to the axon terminal. It requires the protein kinesin
what is retrograde transport and what protein does it require?
retrograde transport involves the movement of material from the axon terminal to the soma and uses the protein dynein
what are dendritic spines?
specialized structures located on the dendrites of some neurons that receive ome types of synaptic input
What is the Nissl stain
a stain that stains the nuclei of neurons as well as Nissl bodies
what is the golgi stain?
staining brain tissue with silver chromate solution causes some of the neurons to become stained in their entirety
what is the neuron doctrine and who contributed to it?
the neuron doctrine states that the elementary unit of the nervous system is the neuron and neurons are not fused to one another. Cajal contributed to this doctrine
what are two important features that distinguish axon from soma?
1. no rough ER extends into the axon and very few, if any, free ribosomes are present
2. the protein composition of the axon membrane is fundamentally different from that of the soma membrane
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