Evol. Psy Glossary 2

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  1. Define IMPRINTING and who proposed it? (K.L)
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    A mechanism explored by Konrad Lorenz whereby chicks rapidly acquire a representation of their ‘mother’ and are thus able to identify her.
  2. Inclusive Fitness
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    A measure of the proportion of an individual’s genes passing on to future generations directly via offspring and indirectly via other relatives.
  3. Individual Selection
    The notion that natural selection occurs at the level of the individual.
  4. In language this is the way that words change to convey properties such as tense, agreement and aspect. English has a sparse inflectional system compared with languages such as Latin and French.
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    inflectional morphology
  5. Define Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
    And who proposed it? (L)
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    A theory which proposed that characteristics acquired through experience could be passed on to offspring through the genes. Famously proposed by Lamarck and now generally held not to be true.
  6. InterSEXUAL Selection
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    Competition to attract members of the opposite sex for the purposes of mating.
  7. Intrasexual selection
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    Competition between members of one sex for sexual access to members of the other sex.
  8. James–Lange theory
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    The theory that we feel emotions because of the physical reactions of the body to emotional events rather than vice versa.
  9. Define K-Selection.
    Also give examples of a species engaging in this.
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    A population or species in which individuals produce relatively small numbers of offspring which are well developed at birth (or at point of hatching) and in which there is high parental investment. ((HUMANS vs Insects))
  10. Lateralisation
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    The term used to describe the differential functioning of the left and right cerebral hemispheres.
  11. Define Learnability Argument Also known as ‘The argument from the poverty of the stimulus’.
    And Who proposed it? (C)
    Also known as ‘The argument from the poverty of the stimulus’. Chomsky argued that the linguistic information that children encounter is so sparse and unsystematic that language learning is impossible unless it is supported by innate knowledge.
  12. LIFE-History Theory
    A theory that investigates the way that organisms allocate time and resources to different activities (e.g. feeding, reproduction, learning) throughout the life span.
  13. Limbic system involved in what?
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    A series of brain structures including the hippocampus, amygdala andseptum involved in the regulation of emotion and memory.
  14. The position of a gene on a chromosome.
    LOCUS (pl. Loci)
  15. Machiavellian intelligence
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    A term coined by Whiten and Byrne, Machiavellian intelligence relates to the ability of animals to manipulate conspecifics by deception, etc.
  16. Meiosis
    • The process of producing cells that have half the number of chromosomes as the mother cell (i.e., they are haploid). Meiosis leads to gamete formation.
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  17. Who coined Meme?
  18. Memetics
    Study of Memes
  19. MITosis produces what kind of cells, and what is the technical terms for such cells as regard to their chromosome number?
    The process of producing cells that have the same number of chromosomes as the mother cell (i.e., they are diploid). Mitosis leads to the formation of new body cells.
  20. Define Mind MODULARITY and give an EXAMPLE.
    Also identity the person who originally Advocated the term: A philosopher (J.F) and later promoted by who? (T & C) to give it a 'Darwinian twist'.
    The claim that the mind contains innate faculties each designed for a particular purpose (such as language, face processing, etc.). Most famously advocated by philosopher Jerry Fodor but modified by Tooby and Cosmides and otherevolutionary psychologists to give it a Darwinian twist.
  21. The study of genes at the molecular level.
    Molecular Genetics
  22. Mating system where individuals only mate with ONE partner
  23. Morphemes
    morphemes Minimal units of meaning in a language. The word ‘talk’ is a morphemeas it cannot be broken down further without destroying the meaning. Not all376 Glossarymorphemes, however, are words. The suffix ‘ing’ is also a morpheme and can beadded to words to make new words, e.g. ‘talking’.
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    A random inherited change in genetic material.
  25. Nativism 
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    A philosophical position that holds that certain psychological abilities areinborn and therefore not learned. More recent interpretations of nativism postulateinnate mechanisms for acquiring certain abilities such as language
  26. Natural selection
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     The prime mover of evolutionary change. The name given by Darwin to what is today considered to be differential gene replication. May more loosely be described as differential reproductive success of different phenotypes.
  27. ORBITOfrontal cortex
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    A portion of the cortex that lies just above the eyes and is involved in processing socially appropriate responses.
  28. OSTENsive communication
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    Communicating by referring to things in the environment,e.g. pointing at objects.
  29. Parental investment involves 3 things, which?
    Time, Effort, Resources provided for one offspring by parents, that might otherwise be invested on other offspring
  30. arthenoGENESIS aka VIRGIN Birth
    ‘Virgin birth’. The process of producing offspring from unfertilisedeggs.
  31. Phenotype
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    Individual characteristics resulting from environmental interaction of an organism’s genotype.
  32. Phonemes 
    Minimal units of sound in a language. In the alphabetic system of writingused in English and other languages, phonemes often correspond to an individual letter (but not always).
  33. Pleiotropy
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    The phenomenon of one gene having more than one phenotypic effect.
  34. Polygamy
    • Mating with more than one individual
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  35. Polyandry
    A form of polygamy where individual females mate with more than one male.
    The phenomenon of a trait being coded for by more than one gene.
  37. Polygyny
    A form of polygamy where individual males mate with more than one female.
  38. Preparedness theory
    The hypothesis that we (and other species) are born with propensities to develop certain responses. Most frequently applied to phobias.
  39. A generalisation made about something in the world, e.g. that birds fly. These are thought to be useful because they enable rapid mental processing,even if they are not always entirely correct (as in the previous example).
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  40. What is the term for: A style of explanation that explains the immediate cause of a particular trait. Also give an example.
    • Proximate explanation
    • Sex cause it feels good, Kill animals to feed because hungry.
  41. Reciprocal altruism
    The process of reciprocating acts of self-sacrificing behaviour between two individuals such that both ultimately gain because the benefits outweigh the costs for each.
  42. The "Red Queen" and also state what the opposite theory is termed
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    • The notion that evolutionary ‘improvements’ to members of a species counteracting changes in members of other species, which may for example be parasites of that species, lead members of the first species back to where they started.
    • Opposite theory could be said to be the Arms Race.
  43. Reproductive value
    A theoretical measurement of the potential for future offspring production. In practice very difficult to quantify.
  44. R-Selection
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    r-selection Apopulation or species in which individuals produce relatively large numbersof offspring and in which there is low parental investment.
  45. Runaway selection (And who proposed it)? (R.A. F)
    The hypothesis proposed by R. A. Fisher that a trait may become elaborated purely on the basis of its attraction to the opposite sex. An example of this might be the elaborate tail feathers of a peacock.
  46. A memory that is responsible for storing general knowledge about the world, e.g. that Paris is the capital of France
    Semantic memory 
  47. Define Sexual selection
    Proposed by?
    Can be divided into?
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    Darwin’s second mechanism of evolutionary change. Sexual selection‘selects for’ characteristics that help an individual gain access to mates. Maybe divided into intersexual and intrasexual selection.
  48. Smoke Detector Principle
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    The hypothesis that we are likely to demonstrate higher levels of anxiety than is strictly necessary since, like a smoke detector, the cost of reacting to a false alarm is much lower than the cost of not responding to a real alarm.
  49. Social Competition Theory
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    The theory that high levels of depression into day’s society are related to finding ourselves in apparent competition with large numbers of people, many of whom appear to be more successful than ourselves.
  50. Social contract hypothesis
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    A theory that proposes that language evolved in order to make promises and other forms of social contract.
  51. Social Grooming Hypothesis
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    A hypothesis put forward by Robin Dunbar to explain the origins of language. He argued that as group sizes increase ancestral humans needed to maintain social cohesion that was obtained in other primates by grooming. Language fulfilled this role, he argues.
  52. Specific action tendencies
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    The hypothesis that specific emotional states lead to states of mind and these, in turn, are likely to lead to adaptive responses.
  53. Specific language impairment
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    A developmental language disorder that appears to affect inflectional morphology (Micro-Wave-Able).
  54. SSSM Stands for What?
    Proposed by Who?
    Defined as what?
    Standard Social Sciences Model (SSSM) The set of assumptions considered by many evolutionary psychologists to be held by the majority of social scientists and which place environmental/cultural factors as pre-eminent in understanding human behaviour.
  55. Superorganic theory of Culture
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    A theory proposed by sociologists and anthropologists that sees culture as above and beyond biology – a ‘superorganism’. This sees culture as being an autonomous force that shapes human behaviour.
  56. Define Trait (a. Fundamental unit of what? b. Can be either X or Y.)
    A characteristic (physical or behavioural) that is a fundamental unit of the phenotype.
  57. Transmitted culture
    Unlike evoked culture transmitted cultural phenomena that have no innate basis.
  58. Ultimate level of explanation
    A style of explanation which attempts to answer the function that a particular trait has in terms of fitness
  59. Part of Chomsky’s theory of language acquisition. According to Chomsky we are born with knowledge of the abstract structure that underlies all languages; this is called the 
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    Universial Grammar
  60. Williams Syndrome Definition? Damage to Chromosome No...?
    Mirror image of...?
    One thing impaired, 2 usually Spared?
    Williams syndrome A developmental disorder caused by damage to chromosome7. In particular Williams syndrome sufferers have low IQ but their language andtheory of mind are spared. Some have argued thatWilliams syndrome is the mirrorimage of autism.
  61. A fear or dislike of strangers.
  62. ZYGOTE
    A cell that is formed from the fusion of two gametes (i.e. a fertilized egg).
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Evol. Psy Glossary 2
2014-01-28 12:48:48
Evolutionary psychology

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