Irreversible cell injury

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Anonymous
ID:
258842
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Irreversible cell injury
Updated:
2014-01-28 11:40:49
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Vet Med
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Description:
Module 4 - Infectious Agents - Irreversible Cell Injury
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  1. What are the morphological changes seen in reversible cell injury?
    Cell swelling, fatty change, plasma membrane blebbling, loss of microvilli, mitochondrial swelling, dilation of ER, eosinophilia
  2. What are the morphological changes seen in necrosis?
    Eosinophilia, nuclear shrinkage, fragmentation, dissolution
  3. What are the morphological changes seen in apoptosis?
    Nuclear chromatin condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies (nuclear and cytoplasmic fragments)
  4. What are the different types of necrosis? (5)
    • Coagulative
    • Liquefactive
    • Caseous
    • Gangrenous
    • Enzymatic
  5. What can be seen morphologically in coagulative necrosis?
    • Preservation of basic cell outlines
    • Cytoplasm homogeneous and eosinophilic
    • Nucleus pyknotic, karryorectic, karrylolytic or absent
  6. What are the common causes of coagulative necrosis?
    • Hypoxic cell injury (local loss of blood supply due to ishcaemia and then infarction - necrosis due to ischaemia)
    • Bacterial or chemical toxins
  7. What is a common nephrotoxin in a) cattle b) cats c) dogs and d) horses
    • a) oak, acorn (tannins)
    • b) easter lillies, ethylene glycol
    • c) raisins/grapes
    • d) red maple
  8. What common disease in dogs shows coagulative necrosis?
    Canine parvovirus enteritis (canine parvovirus)
  9. What does caseous necrosis look like on gross inspection?
    • "Cottage cheese" appearance
    • Dystophic calcification often seen centrally
  10. What does caseous necrosis look like on microscopic appearance?
    • Collection of fragmented/lysed cells with an amorphous granular appearance
    • Tissue architecture obliterated, no cell outlines visible
  11. What are common examples of diseases that cause caseous necrosis?
    • Tuberculosis
    • Corynebacterium in sheep
  12. Where does liquefactive necrosis occur?
    In the CNS, commonly the brain
  13. What would liquefactive necrosis look like on microscopic appearance?
    • There would be areas of pallor where there was fluid (odema) in life
    • May see 'gitter cells' clearing up necrotic debris
  14. What happens during liquefactive necrosis?
    There is little or no fibrous connective tissue in the CNS.  Once tissue becomes necrotic there is no fibrous (scar) tissue to replace the tissue lost.  The resulting cavity is filled with fluid an debris of neuronal membrane lipid.  The debris will be cleared up by macrophages.
  15. What are the three types of gangrene?
    • Dry
    • Moist
    • Wet
  16. What is gangrene?
    Loss of vascular supply followed by bacterial invasion and putrefaction
  17. What are the gross findings in moist gangrene?
    • Soft, moist, reddish-brown/black
    • +/- gas bubbles, putrid smell
  18. What are the histological findings in moist gangrene?
    • Coagulative necrosis and proliferating bacteria
    • Liquefaction +/- gas bubbles
  19. What is dry gangrene?
    Coagulative necrosis secondary to infarction with mummification (water depletion)
  20. Where does dry gangrene normally take place?
    On the extremities i.e. lower portion of the limbs, tail, ears, udder
  21. What is gas gangrene?
    Anaerobic bacteria proliferating and producing toxins in necrotic tissue
  22. What is the gross appearance of wet gangrene?
    Tissues are dark red to black with gas bubbles and a fluid exudate that may contain blood
  23. What are the different causes of fat necrosis?
    • Enzymatic - destruction of fat adjacent to pancreas by activated pancreas lipase's.
    • Traumatic - crushed fat e.g. pelvic fat during dystocia or sternal fat of recumbent animals
    • Abdominal fat necrosis of cattle - necrotic fat in mesentery, momentum and retroperitoneum
  24. What happens to tissues after necrosis?
    • There is an inflammatory response within viable tissues - band of white blood cells and hyperaemia (increased blood supply to the area)
    • Digestion and liquefaction of necrotic tissue - phagocytosis by macrophages and diffusion by vessels
    • Regeneration of normal tissue or fibrous scarring

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