Victor Gr. 7 - History - Causes of the Revolutionary War
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What was the Proclamation Act (line) of 1763?
The Proclamation Act (line) of 1763 was enacted by the British to stop westward settlement on Indian lands and, in turn, protected the colonists from invading Indians.
What was the Sugar Act?
The Sugar Act was a tax placed on sugar and molasses to produce revenue for Britain.
Smugglers would be tried in admiralty courts WITHOUT juries.
What did the Quartering Act do?
The Quartering Act required the colonists to quarter (house and feed) British troops in America.
What did the Townsend Act (1767) impose taxes on?
The Townshend Act imposed taxes (revenue duties) on tea, glass, lead, paper, and paints.
It included strict custom's enforcement, including Writs of Assistance (non-specific search warrants.)
What was the Tea Act? How did the colonists respond to it?
The Tea Act was a tea tax imposed on colonists by Parliament.
The Tea Act of 1773 gave a monopoly on tea sales to the East India Tea Company. Colonists could only buy tea from the East India Tea Company.
The merchants and radical patriots were outraged by the monopoly and united in resisting Great Britain. In New York and Philadelphia, tea ships were forced back to England.
What were the Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)?
In response to the Boston Tea Party, Parliament passed four laws. These laws were so harsh that colonists called them the Intolerable Acts.
1. The first act closed the port of Boston until the city paid for the tea.
2. The second, deprived Massachusetts of self-government and placed it under military rule of British General Thomas Gage.
3. The third, allowed British officials to be tried in England if charged with crimes while enforcing British laws.
4. The fourth, strengthened the 1765 Quartering Act.
What were Writs of Assistance (1662)?
Writs of Assistance were general search warrants which allowed customs officers to enter homes, stores, and warehouses to look for goods brought into the country illegally.
Describe what happened at the Boston Massacre (1770).
On March 5, a rowdy gang of men and boys threw snowballs and rocks at a British soldier guarding the Boston customshouse across from the Statehouse. Other soldiers came to his aid and at some point someone yelled “fire” and the soldiers began to fire at the gang killing 5 colonists including Crispus Attucks, an African American.
Why did Britain tax the colonists without direct representation in Parliament?
Because Britain wanted MONEY (revenue) and they knew that they could tax the colonies in any way if they did not have direct representation in Parliament.
What did the Navigation Acts (1651) do?
The Navigation Acts restricted the colonies from trading with any countries other than Britain by imposing taxes on any goods imported from these other countries.
What was the Stamp Act Congress?
Stamp Act Congress - Nine colonies unified and sent delegates to New York to protest the Stamp Act. They also agreed to boycott all British goods.
Who were the Sons of Liberty?
Sons of Liberty were an organized group of patriots (colonists for independence) who protested the acts that the British government put on them.
What did the Committees of Correspondence do?
The Committees of Correspondence - led by Sam Adams - were secret US colonial groups that acted out against the British in protest of all the taxes Britain was placing on the colonists.
What happened at the Boston Tea Party?
In response to Great Britain passing the Tea Act, on December 16th, 60 Bostonians (The Sons of Liberty) disguised themselves as Indians and boarded three ships in the Boston Harbor and threw 342 chests of East India Company tea overboard.
Define the meaning of “No Taxation without Representation” -
Many colonists believed that if they were not directly represented in the distant British Parliament, any laws it passed taxing the colonists (such as the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act) were illegal under the Bill of Rights 1689, and were a denial of their rights as Englishmen.
James Otis coined the phrase…. "Taxation without Representation is Tyranny!"
What were the Virginia Resolves?
In the Virginia Assembly, Patrick Henry helped write the Virginia Resolves, denying Parliament’s right to tax Virginia.
What was the First Continental Congress?
The First Continental Congress was made up of delegates from all the colonies except Georgia. It was held because the colonists were very upset about the Intolerable Acts and the taxes.
Why did colonists want to Boycott British goods?
Colonists were not happy with the strict rules and laws being implemented by British Parliament. They did not have any representation in the British Parliament and believed that they should only follow the rules of Parliament if they had a “voice” in Parliament. They chose to boycott British goods to make a loud statement to Parliament stating that they wanted to govern themselves.
Who was King George III?
In 1760 George III became King of Great Britain at the age of 22. He was king from 1760 - 1820.
Who was Samuel Adams?
Samuel Adams was a member of the Sons of Liberty and a leader in the Revolutionary War movement.
Who was Paul Revere?
Paul Revere was a member of the Sons of Liberty. He printed an account of the Boston Massacre and sent it out to all the colonies.
What did James Otis do?
James Otis… Spread a claim that the Writs of Assistance violated the colonists English rights to sanctity of the home...
They should not have their homes searched without a warrant.
What did Patrick Henry do?
Patrick Henry… Helped to write the Virginia Resolves, denying Parliament’s right to tax Virginia...
How did British Prime Minister George Grenville feel about the colonists?
He felt that the colonists were ungrateful for not wanting to pay their share for the cost of beating the French. He wanted to tax the colonists to help pay down Britain’s National Debt.
What was a Loyalist?
A Loyalist also known as Tories were colonists whose allegiance remained with Great Britain during the American Revolution (1775 - 1783). Loyalists were not confined to a particular colony, class, or occupation. Many Loyalists fled to Canada during and after the war.
What was a Patriot?
Patriots were colonists who opposed aspects of British rule that they considered harsh and unjust.
These people were the leaders of the American Revolution (1775 - 1783). By the end of the war, most of the American colonists were considered Patriots.
Lord South's opinions on the Stamp Act being fair….
He said England agreed to give up several islands in the Carribbean to achieve a peace treaty that gave security to Americans.
Englishmen in England paid 30 times more in taxes than Americans.
He felt Americans should should pay taxes to help pay for part of the war.
Patrick Henry speaking to the Virginia's House of Burgesses….
England has not taxed the Americans in 150 years.
He believed that it would be wrong to tax American colonies since colonists are not allowed to elect representatives to the English Parliament.
What were the Navigation Acts?
Colonists were required to transport goods only in British vessels.
Imported goods had to be purchased from England or the colonists had to pay import taxes on them.
A Loyalist would agree that...
The amount of money that the colonists are being asked to pay in taxes is a fair and reasonable amount.
The Americans are unnecessarily abusing the tax collectors by attacking them.
The taxes are being used to pay for the French and Indian War because the British soldiers defended the colonists and colonies.
A Patriot would agree that….
Any amount of money that the colonists have to pay to England in taxes is unacceptable.
The British citizens in England who pay taxes are all represented in Parliament. There are no representatives in Parliament from the colonies; therefore we should not have to pay taxes. "No Taxation Without Representation."
The British Parliament did not respond to us when we sent a petition, so we need to take more violent measures if we want to be heard.
In 1763, how did Great Britain try to end troubles with the Native Americans?
Great Britain tried to end troubles with the Native Americans by ....
Passing the Proclamation of 1763 which halted expansion west of the Appalacian Mountains.
Why did the Proclamation of 1763 alarm colonists?
Colonists did not want to be fenced in.
They wanted to move West.
Why did George Grenville allow customs officers to obtain general writs of assistance?
George Grenville allowed customs officers to obtain writs of assistance so they could look for smuggled goods.
What was the purpose of the Sugar Act?
The Sugar Act was imposed on colonists to pay taxes for sugar and molasses imported outside the British empire.
How did the smuggling courts created by the Sugar Act differ from regular courts?
The smuggling courts created by the Sugar Act differed from regular courts in that they did not have juries.
What memorable phrase did James Otis coin?
James Otis coined the phrase... "Taxation without representation is Tyranny!"
What was taxed under the Stamp Act?
Legal documents (birth certificates, death certificates)
Playing cards too!
On what two points did opposition to the Stamp Act focus?
1. Colonists could not be taxed without representation or consent.
2. Parliament had interfered in colonial affairs by taxing the colonists directly.
What was Common Sense?
Common Senseis a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1775–76 that inspired people in the Thirteen Colonies to declare and fight for independence from Great Britain in the summer of 1776.
In clear, simple language it explained the advantages of and the need for immediate independence.
It was published anonymously on January 10, 1776, at the beginning of the American Revolution and became an immediate sensation.
What did Patrick Henry do to oppose the Stamp Act?
To oppose the Stamp Act Patrick Henry wrote the Virginia Resolves... denying Parliament the right to tax Virginia.
What did Samuel Adams do to oppose the Stamp Act?
To oppose the Stamp Act, Samuel Adams helped to start the Sons of Liberty a group that opposed British rule in America.
What merchants, artisans, and farmers do to oppose the Stamp Act?
Merchants, artisans, and farmers boycotted British goods in opposition to the Stamp Act.
What did the Stamp Act Congress do?
The Stamp Act Congress consisted of representatives from British nine colonies who opposed British taxation of the colonies.
They agreed to boycott all British goods.
What rights did the Declaratory Act (1766) give Great Britain over the colonies?
It stated that Britain had the right to tax American colonists.
How did Charles Townshend attempt to raise money in the colonies?
Charles Townshend attempted to raise money in the colonies by putting revenue duties on tea, glass, lead, paper, and paints.
Following are TRUE facts about British Colonial Policy after 1763...
The Townshend Acts of 1767 placed duties on products such as tea, paper, glass, and paints.
The Tea Act of 1773 came about as a result of the Townshend Acts of 1767.
Official papers (wills, deeds, death certificates) in the colonies required a special government stamp under the Stamp Act of 1765.
The Quartering Act of 1765 was intended to prevent colonist uprisings and required colonists to provide food and shelter for British troops.
One of the main purposes of the Proclamation of 1763 was to halt expansion of the American colonies.
More TRUE facts about British Colonial Policy after 1763....
The purpose of the Proclamation of 1763 was to stop white (colonial) settlement WEST of the Appalachian Mountains in order to pacify the Indians and halt expansion of the colonies.
The Quartering Act required COLONISTS to provide food and shelter for British soldiers.
The Navigation Acts stated that any goods purchased outside of England or its possessions had to have an Import Tax.
Locating smugglers and their goods was the main purpose of the Writs of Assistance.
The Proclamation of 1763 was intended to...
make sure that Indians would no longer attack colonial outposts.
Writs of Assistance allowed British troops to...
search colonial homes and businesses.
The act that allowed British troops to spy on the colonists' activities was the....
Describe the Battles of Lexington and Concord...
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. They were fought on April 19, 1775, in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy (present-day Arlington), and Cambridge, near Boston. The battles marked the outbreak of open armed conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen of its colonies on the mainland of British America.
The Navigation Acts stated that....
Colonists would be taxed if they used British ships to import goods to countries that were rivals of Britain.
The Navigation Acts were designed by Britain to limit trade by the colonists with other countries.
What happened at the Battle of Bunker Hill?
The Battle of Bunker Hill took place on June 17, 1775, mostly on and around Breed's Hill, during the Siege of Boston early in the American Revolutionary War. The battle is named after the adjacent Bunker Hill, which was peripherally involved in the battle and was the original objective of both colonial and British troops, and is occasionally referred to as the "Battle of Breed's Hill.”
What is the Declaration of Independence?
The Declaration of Independence is a document declaring the US to be independent of the British Crown, signed on July 4, 1776, by the congressional representatives of the Thirteen Colonies, including Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams.
The Battle of Saratoga
The Battle of Saratoga included two battles fought in 1777 (September 19 and October 7) during the American Revolution, near the modern city of Saratoga Springs, New York. The defeat of the British in both battles is conventionally regarded as the turning point in the war in favor of the American side.
Describe the Battle of Yorktown?
The Battle of Yorktown (1781)was the last great battle of the American Revolutionary War. It is where the British Army surrendered and the British government began to consider a peace treaty.
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