Basal Ganglia

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Basal Ganglia
2014-01-29 18:15:29

Basal Ganglia
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  1. What is the Basal Ganglia derived from ?
    What does the Basal Ganglia control ?
    How does it aid in walking ?
    -Lateral Telencephalon

    -Background tone and posture for movement

    -It aids in autonomic movements  , walking and new motor behavior.
  2. Does Basal Ganglia function with direct and indirect pathways ?

    Does Basal Ganglia have inhibitory and excitatory functions?

  3. What are other portions of the basal ganglia ?
    • –Caudate Nucleus  
    • –Globus pallidus 
    • –Putamen 
    • –Amygdaloid 
    • –Claustrum 
    • –Partly: Substancia nigra and Subthalmic nucleus
  4. What is the Corpus Striatum ?
    What is the function of the Corpus Striatum ?
    What makes up the Neostriatum ?
    • -It is portion of the basal ganglia 
    • -Somatic motor functions
    • -Caudate nucleus and Putamen
  5. What is the Paleostriatum ?
    It is a portion of the Corpus Striatum and is composed of the Globus Pallidus
  6. Place these in order of relevance to function?
    Corpus Striatum
    Basal Ganglia 
    Globus Pallidus
    Caudate nucleus
    • Basal Ganglia 
    • Corpus Striatum
    • Neostriatum : Caudate Nucleus and Putamen
    • Paleostriatum : Globus Pallidus
  7. What is the amygdaloid nuclear complex ?
    -processing of memory and emotional reactions, the amygdalae are considered part of the limbic system

    -pheromone-processing. It receives input from theolfactory bulb and olfactory cortex
  8. What other portions of the brain does the Amygdaloid have reciprocal connections with ?
    • -Hypothalamus 
    • -Prepyriform cortex
  9. Place these in order of relevance to each other ?
    • Amygdaloid 
    • Archistriatum
  10. Does the Striatum (Corpus Striatum ) receive afferent or efferent input to the basal ganglia ?
  11. What chemicals does the Striatum receive as afferent input to the basal ganglia ?
    • Dopamine
    • Glutamate 
    • Serotonin
  12. What chemical does the Striatum receive in order to inhibit the Globus Pallidus ?
    P.Gaba -γ-Aminobutyric acid
  13. What are the Basal Ganglia Circuits ?
    -Fibers emanating and going to basal ganglia both efferent and afferent types.
  14. The Basal Ganglia Circuits run in a certain manner put the following in order 

    Thalamus , Cortex, Globus palladus , Striatum 

    Striatum , Substancia 

    Globus Pallidus , Subthalamus ,
    Striatum > Globus pallidus > Thalamus > Cortex > Striatum 

    Striatum > Substancia > Striatum

    Globus Pallidus > Subthalamus > Globus pallidus
  15. Describe the cytology of the Putamen ?
    • -Small achromatic neurons 
    • -Large multipolar neurons w/rounded contours and irregularly clumped nissl subs
  16. What is the cytology of the Globus Pallidus ?
    -Large , ovoid or polygonal cells with long , thick and smooth dendrites.
  17. What is the Calaustrum ?
    -is a thin, irregular, sheet of neurons which is attached to the underside of the neocortex in the center of the brain. 

    -Contains discrete visual and somatosensory subdivisions
  18. What is the Internal Capsule ?
    The internal capsule is an area of white matter in the brain that separates the caudate nucleus and the thalamus from the putamen and the globus pallidus. The internal capsule contains both ascending and descending axons.
  19. What type of fibers are the Internal Capsule composed of ?
    afferent and efferent  fibers that go to and from the cerebral cortex
  20. What is the Internal capsule mostly formed by ?
    thalamic radiations
  21. What are the four corticofugal fibers or efferent cortical fibers ?
    • Corticospinal
    • Corticobulbar
    • Corticoreticular 
    • Corticopontine tracts
  22. What is the Genu of the internal capsule ?
    it contains the corticobulbar and corticoreticular tracts.
  23. What are the Afferent fibers ?
    • Corticostriate 
    • Thalamostriate 
    • Nigrostriate
    • Striatal Brainstem
  24. What are the Efferent Fibers ?
    • Striopallidal 
    • Stionigral