A&P 1- Ch 2 Chemical level of Organization

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A&P 1- Ch 2 Chemical level of Organization
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2014-02-05 22:27:22
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A&P 1 ch 2
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  1. A reaction that breaks a molecule until smaller fragments
    decomposition (AB -> A + B)
  2. One of the bonds in a complex molecule is broken, and the components of a water molecule are added to the resulting fragments
    hydrolysis (A - B + H2O -> A-H + HO - B)
  3. -Opposite of decomposition
    - assembles smaller molecules into larger molecules
    Synthesis (A+ B -> AB)
  4. Formation of a complex molecule by the removal of a water molecule
    Dehydration synthesis (A - H + HO - B -> A- B + H2O)
  5. Amount of energy required to start a reaction
    Activation energy
  6. Promote chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy requirements
    Enzymes
  7. Compounds that accelerate chemical reactions without themselves being permanently changed or consumed
    Catalysts
  8. Things needed in your body to survive
    -proteins
    -fats
    -carbohydrates
    -vitamins
    -minerals
    -water
    Nutrients
  9. Generally do not contain carbon and hydrogen atoms as their primary structural ingredients
    Inorganic compounds
  10. Molecules and substances that dissolve or break up in water
    solubility
  11. Uniform mixture of two or more substances
    solution
  12. Larger portion of a solution
    solvent
  13. Smaller portion of a solution
    solute
  14. The ability to absorb and retain heat
    heat capacity
  15. A large mass of water changes temperature slowly
    Thermal inertia
  16. A water molecule is called a
    polar molecule (dipole)
  17. Ionic bonds are broken as the individual ions interact with the positive or negative ends of polar water molecules
    ionization
  18. Soluble inorganic molecules whose ions will conduct an electrical current in a solution
    electrolytes
  19. Molecules that interact readily with water molecules
    hydrophilic
  20. Molecules that do not readily react with water are
    hydrophobic
  21. What are 3 types of physical mixtures
    • Solutions
    • colloids
    • suspensions
  22. -A solution containing dispersed proteins or other large molecules
    -thick in appearance and texture (jello)
    colloid
  23. -Contains large particles in a solution
    - these particles will eventually settle out of a solution because of the forces of gravity, if undisturbed
    suspension
  24. The negative logarithms of the hydrogen ion concentration in moles per liter is
    pH of a solution
  25. What is a neutral pH?
    7, contains equal amount of hydrogen and hydroxide
  26. What is an acidic pH?
    Below 7 (0-6), contains more hydrogen than hydroxide
  27. What is a basic pH?
    Above 7 (8-14), contains more hydroxide than hydrogen
  28. Normal blood pH is
    7.35-7.45
  29. Normal osmolarity (mOsm/L) of blood?
    280-295
  30. Normal potassium level in blood?
    3.5-5.0
  31. Normal sodium level in blood?
    135-145
  32. Any solute that dissociatesin solution and releases hydrogen ions, lowering pH
    acid
  33. Solute that dissociates completely in a solution
    Strong acid
  34. Solute that removes the amount of hydrogen ions from a solution
    base
  35. An ionic compound containing any cation except a hydrogen ion and any anion except a hydroxide ion
    salt
  36. Substances that stabilize the pH of a solution by removing or replacing hydrogen ions
    buffers
  37. An organic molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a ratio near 1:2:1
    carbohydrate
  38. -simple sugar
    -carb. Containing 3-7 carbon atoms
    monosaccharide
  39. 3 types of monosaccharides
    • -glucose
    • -fructose
    • -galactose
  40. Molecules have the same molecular formula but different structures
    isomers
  41. Two monosaccharides joined together form a
    disaccharide (sucrose)
  42. 3 or more monosaccharide form
    Polysaccharide (cellulose, glycogen)
  43. -animal starch
    -has many side branches consisting of chains of glucose molecules
    glycogen
  44. contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the carbon-to-hydrogen ration is near 1:2
    Lipids (fats)
  45. Long carbon chains with hydrogen atoms attached
    Fatty acids
  46. fatty acids can be attached to a modified simple sugar _____ resulting in a lipid know as a ______.
    Glycerol; glyceride
  47. Glycerol + three fatty acids is a
    triglyceride
  48. Large lipid molecules that share a distinctive carbon framework
    steroids
  49. Steroids like cholesterol are important because:
    • -cells need it to maintain their plasma membrane, for cell growth and division
    • -regulation of sexual function (steroid hormones)
    • -regulate tissue metabolism & mineral balance
    • -bile salts, required for normal processing of dietary fats.
  50. Share a complex four-ring structures
    steroids
  51. Links a diglyceride to a nonlipid group
    phospholipid
  52. A carbohydrate attached to a diglyceride
    glycolipid
  53. -chain of amino acids
    -most abundant organic compound in the human body
    proteins
  54. What essential functions do proteins provide in the body??
    • -support                 -metabolic regulation
    • -movement.           - coordination & control 
    • -transport.             - defense
    • -buffering
  55. Proteins consist of long chains of organic molecules called
    Amino acids (20 amino acids in the body)
  56. Amino acids consist of 5 components:
    • -central carbon
    • -hydrogen atom
    • -an amino group (NH2)
    • - carboxyl group (COOH)
    • - an R group
  57. Protein shape:
    • - primary structure (single polypeptide)
    • -secondary structure (alpha-helix, pleated sheet)
    • - tertiary structure (coiling & folding)
    • -quaternary structure (globular shape)
  58. Protein structure that forms extended sheets or strands
    Fibrous protein
  59. Protein structure that is compact, generally rounded, and readily enter an aqueous solution
    Globular protein
  60. change in  tertiary or quaternary structure that makes it nonfunctional
    denaturation
  61. The four nitrogenous bases occur in nucleic acids are:
    • -adenine
    • - guanine
    • - cytosine
    • - thymine
  62. A High energy compound that is used by cells
    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

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