phar info 8-12.txt

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phar info 8-12.txt
2014-01-28 17:57:57
pharmacy informatics

for pharmacy students
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  1. impact evaluation that assigns members to the treatment group and a control group by method other than random assignment
    quasi experimental study
  2. ex. achievement of first born children with that of later born kids
    quasi experimental study
  3. other name of cross sectional study
    • transversal
    • prevalence
    • cross sectional analysis
  4. involves data collection at a defined time
    cross sectional study
  5. ex. beer and obesity
    cross sectional study
  6. ana analytical study which compares individuals who have specific disease (cases) with those without disease (control)
    case control study
  7. ex. diabetec person drinking beer to non diabetec person drinking beer
    case control study
  8. research study that tracks patients with a known exposure given similar txn or examines their medical records for exposure and outcome
    case series
  9. ex. analysis of ADR to vaccines
    case series
  10. research studies that test how well new medical approaches work in people
    clinical trial
  11. ex. viagra for filipino men
    clinical trial
  12. a report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, txn, follow up of an individual
    case report
  13. contains demographic profile of the patient
    case report
  14. analysis of risk factors and follows a group of people who do not have disease, and uses correlations to determine the absolute risk of subject contraction
    cohort study
  15. ex. metabolic syndrome as a precursor of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus 
    cohort study
  16. methods focused on contrasting and combining result from different studies
    meta analysis
  17. example of meta analysis
    • fertility and women's employment
    • breast cancer in 40 age women
  18. pharmacokinetics used to assess the expected in vivo biological equivalence of 2 proprietary prep. of drug
    bioequivalence study
  19. ex. generic products and branded products
    bioequivalence study
  20. practice of monitoring the safety of a pharmaceutical drug or medical device after it has been released on the market
    post marketing surveillance 
  21. a way of summarizing research qualitative evidence
    qualitative systemic review
  22. ex. txn burden in stroke, heart failure and diabetes
    qualitative systemic review
  23. critical part of the drug development process and are essential for drug product marketing approval
    stability study
  24. medication used in hospital setting may be described simply in several steps:
  25. deals with the record of diseases and intervention to cure them
  26. it includes elements of health care maintenance and preventive care items
  27. to provide structure to physicians order and to allow for the rendering of decision support tools at the moment of ordering
  28. 3 elements to make online records more advantageos
    • accessibility
    • legibility
    • use of discrete data
  29. common standards used to represent in EHR
    • diagnosis
    • utilization and procedure
    • drug code
    • implementation of EHR's
  30. used for clinical decision support and for billing support purposes
  31. a developed system of structural data for laboratory findings and other observation
  32. examples of drug information documents and topics written by pharmacist
  33. examples of verbal presentations delivered by pharmacist
  34. preparing to write
    • know the topic
    • know the audience
    • know the prupose
  35. key points in presentation
    • prep and practice
    • prep style
    • basic scheme presentation
    • the audience
    • visual aids
    • delivery
    • evaluation
  36. steps in preparation and practice
    • clarify the topic
    • research the topic
    • identify the visual aids
    • create an outline
    • rehearse the presentation
  37. key qualities of successful delivery
    • attitude
    • body language
    • voice control
    • eye contact
    • appearance
    • language
  38. best way to obtain crucial feedback
  39. is an electronic communication over distance
  40. telephone, record, record sound as oscillating waves
    analog devices
  41. measure of the ability to carry increasing data overtime
  42. describes two way communication that occurs in real time. examples
    • synchronous.
    • tm, im, telephone
  43. does not occur in real time. example
    • asynchronous.
    • email, post mail
  44. orbiting in the same direction and speed as the earth. examples
    • geosynchronous
    • satellite
  45. anything that can carry an electronic signal from its source to a destination
    telecommunication medium
  46. two types of telecommunication medium
    • broadcast media
    • cable media
  47. it uses light waves to transfer data
    short range, less than few meters
    infrared communication 
  48. uses radio waves as the medium to transport data, wifi
    radio communication
  49. uses antenna that transmit high bandwidth signals between stations - 30 miles apart
    microwave communication
  50. susceptible to disruption by weather
    line of sight
  51. uses geographic regions to defined areas that are covered by cellular tower
    cellular communication
  52. evolution of cellular services
  53. provides the broadest geographic coverage
    satellite communication
  54. unique subset of communication
    data communication