Chpt 1 and 2 Psych

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lcunrod7
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Chpt 1 and 2 Psych
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2014-01-28 17:46:27
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  1. Developed the controversial ideas of this famed personality theorist and therapist have influenced many people's self-understanding
    Sigmund Freud
  2. the neuron's extension that passes messages through its branching terminal fibers that form junctions with other neurons, muscles, or glands
    axon
  3. a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
    action potential
  4. a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior
    biological psychology
  5. part of the brain that controls language expression, an area of the frontal lobe, ususally in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
    Broca's area
  6. the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen in
    hindsight bias
  7. prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.
    bias
  8. a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to work, school, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
    counseling psychology
  9. the vein that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without references to mental processes
    behaviorism
  10. historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth
    humanistic psychology
  11. the scientific study of behavior and mental process
    psychology
  12. the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychology traits and behaviors
    nature vs nuture
  13. a branch of psychology that studies, assess, and treats people with psychological disorders
    clinical psychology
  14. a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
    psychiatry
  15. thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions, rather it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions
    critical thinking
  16. an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behavior or events
    theory
  17. a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
    hypothesis
  18. a statement of the procedures used to define research variables
    operational definition
  19. repeating the essence of a study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
    replication
  20. an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
    case study
  21. a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
    survey
  22. a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has a equal chance of inclusion
    random sample
  23. a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process by random assignments of participants the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors
    experiment
  24. assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
    random assignment
  25. an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo
    double-blind procedure
  26. experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
    placebo efffect
  27. commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
    placebo
  28. the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of independent variable
    dependent variable
  29. the bushy, branching extension of a neuron that receives messages and conduct impulses toward cell body
    dendrite
  30. the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
    threshold
  31. the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite of cell body of the receiving neuron the tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft
    synapse
  32. chemical messengers that transverse the synaptic gaps between neurons, when released by the sending neurons, these travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
    neurotransmitters
  33. "morphine within" natural, opiatelike, neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
    endorphins
  34. the brain and the spinal cord
    central nervous system
  35. the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
    peripheral nervous system
  36. neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
    sensory neurons
  37. neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
    motor neurons
  38. the part of the PNS that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs, its sympathetic division arouses, its parasympathetic division calms
    autonomic nervous system
  39. the division of the autonomic nervous system the arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
    sympathetic nervous system
  40. the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
    parasympathetic nervous system
  41. the body's slow chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
    endocrine gland
  42. a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys, the adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) which help to arouse the body in times of stress
    adrenal
  43. the endocrine system's most influential gland, under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
    pituitary glnad
  44. the base of the brain stem; controls heartbeat and breathing
    medulla
  45. the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top or the brainstem; it directs messages tot he sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
    thalamus
  46. the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
    cerebellum
  47. a donut-shaped system of neural structures below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus
    limbic system
  48. a neural structure lying below the thalamus, it directs several maintenance activities, helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland and is linked to emotion
    hypothalamus
  49. the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements
    frontal lobe
  50. the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
    parietal lobe
  51. the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, each receiving information from the opposite visual field
    occipital lobe
  52. the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear
    temporal lobe
  53. areas of the cerebral cortex that are no involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning remembering, thinking, and speaking
    association areas
  54. controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
    wernicke's area
  55. the brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development
    plasticity
  56. the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
    corpus collosum
  57. a condition in which the brain's two hemispheres are isolated by cutting the fibers connecting them
    split brain
  58. observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
    naturalistic observation
  59. any or all of the sciences, such as neurochemistry and experimental psychology, which deal with the structure or function of the nervous system and brain
    neuroscience

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