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True algae are __.
--in the past, they were classified as __.
True algae are probably not what?
related to each other at all, except that tehy are protists
Explain water blooms.
Develop as a result of what?
In addition, __ are especially abundant when the water temperature is relatively warm, an
d the water is __ to __.
How many are in water?
a super abundance of cyanobacteria or true algae in lakes, rivers, ponds, or ocean water
increased nutrients, such as nitrogen or phosphorus, in the water
- cyanobacterial blooms
Water blooms apply to any kind of __.
Water blooms do what to oxygen, thus resulting in__.
They can do what to intake filters and why?
deplete oxygen in water due to respiration and decomposition; can result in fish killls
clog intake filters of water treatment plants due to the gelatinous matrix around the cells (Can also form slimy scum on greenhouse floors, clay flower pots, pool decks)
Water blooms can do what to drinking water and swimming/ boating?
- make water drink and smell weird/ bad
- make swimming and boating unpleasant
Several species produce __, which are released when cells die, e.g. some species of __, __, and __.
- Anabaena Mcrocyctis
Most endotoxins are either __ or __.
The only documented and scientifically substantiated human deaths due to __ have been due to exposure during __. There have been deaths of cattle waterfowl, and other aquatic animals.
- neurotoxins: anatoxins and saxitoxins
- liver toxins (heptatoxins): microcystins nodularins, and cylindrospermopsins
- cyanobacterial toxins
Some accidental poisonings of people have occurred in __. Symptoms include: __, followed by fever, severe headache, muscle and joint pain and weakness, and liver damage.
- stomach pains
May cause human __, such as swimmer's itch caused by a species of __from Hawaii. IN addition, the two toxins produced by this species are potent tumor-producing compounds. The toxins are:
__ and __.
- Lyngbyatoxin A, an alkaloid
- Aplasiatoxins, phenols
Used in __: either free-living or, more commonly, in a __ association with the aquatic fern __.
THis has been the method for thousands of years/ This staple is grown in flooded fields. It helps the food because of the __.
- rice paddies
- N fixation
A few are eaten directly, especially __. The __ based on dry weight is __. It also contains __, __ and __, __ and __. Sold in the US in health food stores.
The size of its protein is __.
- protein composition
- Beta-carotene, gamma-linolenic acid, high levels of iron, vitamin A, and vitamin B12
The ancient __ cultivated mats of __ in shallow ponds and lakes; once dried it was made into bread, mixed with some grain dishes and put into some sauces.
Used today in MExico, S. America, China and Africa, eg. part of traditional meals in Chad, where it is made into a sauce for beans, meat, or fish.
Grown in __ lakes in Mexico and Africa and used to prepare a __. Grown __ in CA, HI, Thailand, Mexico, Japan, Israel, and Taiwan.
Sold at bird shows. Enhances __ and __ in birds. Also, sometimes prescribed to increase stamina, relieve stiffness, and for general toning in birds.
Disadvantages of Spirulina are what?
- alkaline lakes
- high-protein food additive
- plumage color and luster
strong color, odor, and a taste not easily hidden
What are the two ways a toxin can be released?
- endotoxin (cy. do this)
- have rings with nitrogen
- not only produced by plants
- very commonly produced by flowering plants for defense (causes problems if ingested by animals)
It is possible that cyanobacteria do what?
produce a small amount o antibiotics
Poteintial source of __ and __ compounds.
Several marine relative of Lyngbya have demonstrated __ against mouse leukemia.
Extracts of some species of Oscillatoria protect isolated human T-cells from HIV
Extracts from one species of Phormidium show __.
- anti-hep B activity
True Algae (brief description)
- unicellular / multicellular
- colonial/ filamentous
- nearly all photosynthetic
How do they differ?
a) not classified with __.
b) what does it have to do with?
- reproductive structures
What are the three forms of reproduction?
1) adult organisms themselves act as gametes; must be unicellular (not done in plants) [cells fuse with one another]
- 2) gametes produced in speciailized structures called gametangium
- --the cell that the gametes are being produced in is unicellular (in plants, its multicellular)
- 3) multicellular gametangium
- -- all cells produce gametes (in plants: one layer on gametangium in which cells are sterile)
Alot of true algae also produce __; produce structure called __.
2) Most have, but not all, a __.
3) composition of cell wall depends on __.
4) another difference: algae lack __, which are __. Why do they lack this?
- vascular tissues
- - xylen: water and dissolved things (minerals/ sugar mlecule)
- - phloem (sugar) (sucrose)
they don't need it
Photosynthetic algae all have __.
There may be others, such as __.
Some __; others not.
__ and __. There may be __ too.
- chlorophyll A
- chlorophyll B
- sexual reproduction (meiosis) and mitosis
What are the forms of reproduction?
Euk: mitosis, fragmentation, spores (produced by mitosis
pro: binary fission, fragmentation, spores produced by binary fission
Three types of sexual reproduction based on __.
What are the three?
size and motility of the gametes
isogamy, anisogamy, oogomy
gametes look exactly alkie; have flagella, but may be nonmotile
one is bigger than hte other
- one is way larger than the other (egg= nonmotile_)
- sperm are motile