Mycology 410: Lecture 3, Immunology

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mprosenberg
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258922
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Mycology 410: Lecture 3, Immunology
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2014-01-28 22:24:10
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Mycology 410
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Mycology 410
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  1. Cellular responses CMI and AMI
    Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and Antibody-mediated immunity (AMI)
  2. Innate Immunity
    • Immediate, initial defense, no memory
    • Includes: cells, non-specific humoral factors, physical barriers
  3. Adaptive Immunity
    Slow, antigen-specific, memory, cellular components
  4. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI)
    • Host cells recognize PAMPs (innate)
    • B/T cells recognize antigens (adaptive)
    • Response to Pathogen Recognition:
    •     -Phagocyte activation, increase anti-microbe
    •     -Lymphocyte activation, proliferation
    •     -Cytokine production
  5. Humoral Immunity
    • Innate: non-specific soluble blood components
    • Specific: Antibodies produced by B cells
  6. Aspects of Immunity EFFECTIVE against fungi
    Innate immunity, cell mediated-responses
  7. Aspects of Immunity NOT EFFECTIVE against fungi
    Complement attack, Antibodies (although a strong response IS elicited)
  8. Fungal PAMPS can elicit:
    • Cytokines, TNF's, IL's, Interferons
    • Alter the expression of genes that cover antimicrobial traits
  9. Development of antigen-CMI to fungi
    • Macrophage processes/presents antigen
    • MHCII presents to T lymphocyte
    • T cell expressing CD4/TCR
    • T cell proliferate, activate pro-inflammatory cytokines
    • Cytokines stimulate macrophage antimicrobial activity
  10. Defects that can make hosts more susceptible to fungal infection.
    • Compromised skin barrier
    • Reduction/alteration of microbiota
    • Inherited immunodeficiency
    • Cancer
    • Radiation therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy
    • Immunosuppressive chemotherapy
    • Hospitalization
    • Diabetes
    • Extremes of age
    • Other infections
  11. How does skin barrier breach allow susceptibility
    • Barrier compromised, reduced blood (WBC) count.
    • Fungus can land, be inserted in, or skin-borne can enter.
  12. Can can reduction/alteration of microbiota
    Normal bio fungus can over-grow, anti-biotics can remove competition.
  13. How can inherited immunodeficiency allow increase fungal susceptibility
    • Syndromes affecting phagocytes or T lymphocytes are most relevant
    • e.g: chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)
  14. How can cancer increase fungal susceptibility
    • Cancer may disturb cytokine networks
    • Can reduce function of normal immune system
    • Cancer treatments can weaken immune system
  15. Cancer treatments that weaken immune system
    • Radiation and cytotoxic chemotherapy:
    • Mechanism: kills rapidly dividing cells
    • kills bone marrow in process (loss of WBCs)
    • widespread immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects
  16. The longer one has granulocytopenia the more likely they are to have:
    invasive pulmonary aspergillis
  17. Forms of Immunosuppressive chemotherapy
    • Corticosteroids, TNFalpha antagonists, Calcineurin inhibitors
    • All suppress various forms of immune response: inflammation, phagocytes, TNFs, T cells

    Used in various autoimmune responses
  18. How can hospitalization effect fungal susceptibility
    • Immunosupression by procedures, invasive procedures, antibiotics, illness
    • Hospitals are a great place for opportunistic diseases, nosocomial infections
  19. How does diabetes affect fungal susceptibility
    Diminished phagocytes, nutritional effects,
  20. Affects of age on fungal susceptibility
    Very young/old are susceptible. Both have weaker immune systems
  21. Other infections that can affect fungal susceptibility
    Herpes, HIV

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