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equally spaces streets or roads perpendicular to eachother
DIRECTS FLOW TO OR FROM A COMMON CENTER WITH STRAIGHT CHANNELS OF CIRCULATION RADIATIING FROM ITS CENTER POINT. OFTEN USES BELTWAYS AS CITY EXPANDS. CONCENTRIC RINGS.
FLOW BETWEEN TWO POINTS, ALONG A SINGLE LINE OR PARALLEL LINES.
RESPONDS TO TYPOGRAPHY OF THE LAND ALIGNING WITH NATURAL CONTOURS.
- 1. FREEWAYS, EXPRESSWAYS
- 2. ARTERIAL STREETS, HIGHWAYS
- 3. COLLECTOR - DISTRIBUTER STREETS
- 4. LOCAL ACCESS STREETS
FREEWAYS - EXPRESSWAYS
- LARGE VOLUMES BETWEEN, AROUND AND THROUGH URBAN CENTER. RAPID SPEEDS
- ROADS THAT CONNECT WITH FREEWAYS BY ON AND OFF RAMPS
COLLECTOR - DISTRIBUTER STREETS
- WEST ESPLANADE
- TRANSITION BETWEEN LOCAL AND ARTERIALS STREETS.
MEDIAN / NUTRAL GROUND
- 7' WIDE IF IT CONTAINS TREES
- 4' FOR GRASS ONLY
- ANGLE-- PROJECTION-- BAY WIDTH
- 30 --------15'-7" ------------- 43'-2"
- 45 --------18'-2" ------------- 48'-4"
- 400 S.F. PER VEHICLE
- 1 STALL PER 350S.F. OF BLDG.
- 1 - 5 PERCENT SLOPE
- 60" TWO WHEEL CHARIS TO PASS
- 1:20 (5%) SLOPES
- RAMPS WHEN DROP IS > 1/2"
- RAMPS MIN OF 3' WIDE AND NOT EXCEED 30'
- 5' TURNING RADIUS
- 7-50 - 2 MIN.
- 51-100 - 3 MIN
- 101-150 - 5 MIN.
- OVER 150 - 5 + 2 FOR EVERY ADDITIONAL 100
- 65 TO 75 DEGREES
- 30 TO 60 % HUMIDITY
- HORIZ. OVERHANGS MOST EFFECTIVE FOR SOUTH
- VERTICAL FINS MOST EFFECTIVE E & W
- measure of heat transmission
- number of BTU's per hour that pass thru one s.f. of material
- low u-valus indicates slow heat loss / gain
- high u-value indicates rapid loss / gain
ability of a material to store heat
4 soil classifications
- gravel - over 2 mm
- sand - .05 to 2 mm
- silt - .002 to .05 mm
- clay - under .002 mm
- A - top soils
- B - minerals
- C - weathered fractured rock
- D - bedrock
Unified Soil Classifications
- well-graded - variety of grain sizes
- poorly-graded - same sized particles
ultimate bearing capicity
- maximum unit preassure without permiting detrimental settlement.
- gravels / sands - 3000- 1200 psi
- silts / clays - 1000 - 4000 psi
- bedrock - 100000 psi
footing that delivers its load directly to the soil
if load is 200 kips and soil capicity is 4 kips, then footing must be 200/4 = 50 s.f.
5% of total construction costs
costs of foundation systems
- 1. spread footing - cheapest
- 2. drilled CIP concrete piles
- 3. mat foundations, nbelled caissons, driven piles p most expensive
design of site drainage patterns
surface water management
surface water that does not seep into the ground
- level - <4%
- easy grades - 4% - 10%
- steep grades - > 10%
- storm drains - .3%
- sanitary sewers - .4% - 1.4%
- Streets drainage - .5%
- open land - .5%
- planted / paved areas - 1%
- ditches / canal - 2% - 10%
- parking - 5%
- car ramps - 8%
- sidewalks - 10%
- lawns - 25%
- absorb as much as 90% of light
- reduce winds by 10%
- reduce temps by 15%
Wale or Whaler
A horizontal brace of steel or timber used to support sheathing, or other members such as concrete formwork. holds vertical members and formwork in line
Creating a shallow excavations used for pouring small footings and foundation walls or to provide drainage for suraface water.
temporary wood or steel bracing usually set at an angle and used to hold walls in place
the removal of soil from its natural position to allow for construction below grade.
Providing additional support to an existing foundation by rebuilding or reinforcing
A temporary diagonal brace used to support vertical sheeting against earth walls created by excavation
A test method to determine the rate soil absorbs effluent
A test method used to determine the optimum relationship between moisture content and compaction of soil
Soil or sand deposited by flowing water
Soft dark soil containing decomposed organic matter, poor bearing caacity
Rich soil containing equal parts of sand, silt and clay.
soil is removed art regular depths to determine moisture content, density, and porosity
Visual inspection of soil conditions by digging an open trench
An Auger bit is used to bring up soil samples. best in sand or clay at shallow depths
Samples are taken with a 2 to 4 inch pipe which forces water to bring up the soil mix
Soil Load Test
applying incremental loads of soil on a platform erected at the site. the test is complete hen the soil stops settling upon subsequent loading an becomes stable.
Information included in Topo Survey
- Site contours
- property boundaries
- existing bldgs.
- natural features
- 43,560 sq. ft.
- 640 = 1 square mile
Always points downhill
Order of sitework
- 1. set batter boards'
- 2. remove and save top 6" of soil
- 3. Earth work: grading and excavation
- 4. Rough Grading: addition or removal of earth prior to construction.
- 5. finish grading: preparation for landscaping
heavy timber or steel column driven vertically into the soil and used to hold cribbing boards in palce
Horizontal boards, 2 to 4 inches thick placed between soldier beams used to hold soil in place during excavation
Paved Area minimum Slope
1% to 1.5%
methods to Improve Soil Bearing Capacity
- 1. Fill: poor soil is replaced, then compacted
- 2. Compaction: of existing soil
- 3. Densification: use heavy pounding piles, vibration or weights to compact and fill voids
- 4. Surcharging: adding fill to existing soil and allowing settlement with time
- 5. Mixing : addition of sand or gravel to the soil.
Vehicle turning Radii
- Small cars : 16-19 feet
- standard cars : 19-23 feet
- large cars : 23-25 feet
- ambulances : 25-30 feet
- busses and trucks " 43-50 feet
Four Primary Soil Types
- 1. Gravels
- 2. Sands
- 3. Silts
- 4. Clays
angle of the sun measured clockwise from the North point or South point. (angle on ground)
Square footage required per car for parking and circulation
400 Sq. Ft.
A land Plan. Component of a survey indicating the metes and bounds
an elevated artificial channel that carries fast moving water used to transport items or divert a stream.
An embankment, levee or dam formed to hold a river or stream or divert the flow of water.
Methods used to control erosion during construction
- 1. Silt fence
- 2. Straw Bale dams / Earth Dikes
- 3. Hydroseeding or mulch
- 4. retaining Walls
Sound intensity level
diminishes by 6dm by doubling the distance.
Distance between contour lines
doubling distance decrease Intensity to 1/4 original.
Floor Area Ratio
- the ratio between gross floor area of a building to the area of the lot before setbacks.
- length X width of site, X F.A.R, equals max floor area. then Length X width of sitewithin setbacks divided by the max floor area to get amount of allowable floors.
Four Main Site Factors affecting the Physical form of a building
- 1. Site to structure relationships
- 2. Site to form relationship
- 3. Vegetation
- 4. Climate
the level of sub grade onto which material will be added to reach finish grade.
Passive Solar Heating
- Orient bldg long axis east west
- use thermal massing
- use Deciduous trees to block sunlight during summer and allow it during winter
Passive Solar Cooling
- Shading - trees bldgs, horiz louvers on south and vert louvers on E & W
- Natural ventilation
- Radiative Cooling - thermal mass
- Evaporative cooling - utilized wind and water elements
- Ground coupling - earths cool temp.
potion of radiant energy reflected as it falls on a surface
Metes and Bounds
property is described narratively starting at one point and describing the length and direction of each line around the property
- North to South lines
- Principal meridians - serve as a basis of grid layout
- Guide meridians - other meridians
- East to West Lines
- Base lInes - principal parallels that serve as basis for grid layout
- Standard parallels - other parallels.
designed to let sediment settle while water drains into the ground
designed to retain stormwater until it can seep into the ground
- fraction of total precipitation falling on a surface that runs off the surface or is not absorbed into the ground.
- used to calculate the amount of runoff in cubic feet per second on a site
when are traffic signals employed?
when vehicle volume exceeds 750 cars per hour
90 degree vs angled parking
- more cars can be parked at 90 using the same stall widths than 45 or 60.
- 60, 45, 30 establish a one-way circulation which is easier for the driver to back out
- 60 degree parking is not as efficient, safe or cost effective as 90 degree; however it is easier for a drive r to use.
- ramps should not exceed 15%
- for slopes greater than 10%, a transition of 8' at half the slope is required at both ends of ramp.
parking lot slopes
at least 1%, no more than 5%
should be employed when rise is greater than 6"and run is greater than 72"
mixture of gravel, clay and sand. good foundation
The Natural Step
environmental credo focusing on the ecosphere and the biosphere
- set of community principles for land use planning
a restriction of the deed that regulates land use, aesthetics, etc.
the number of degrees that the mean temperature for any day is below 65 degrees
given when regular enforcement would impose unusual or unreasonable hardship to owner