site planning

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RayZabala
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25894
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site planning
Updated:
2010-07-20 17:01:39
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site planning
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  1. Grid system
    equally spaces streets or roads perpendicular to eachother
  2. radial system
    DIRECTS FLOW TO OR FROM A COMMON CENTER WITH STRAIGHT CHANNELS OF CIRCULATION RADIATIING FROM ITS CENTER POINT. OFTEN USES BELTWAYS AS CITY EXPANDS. CONCENTRIC RINGS.
  3. LINEAR SYSTEM
    FLOW BETWEEN TWO POINTS, ALONG A SINGLE LINE OR PARALLEL LINES.
  4. CURVILINEAR SYSTEM
    RESPONDS TO TYPOGRAPHY OF THE LAND ALIGNING WITH NATURAL CONTOURS.
  5. TRAFFIC ARTERIES
    • 1. FREEWAYS, EXPRESSWAYS
    • 2. ARTERIAL STREETS, HIGHWAYS
    • 3. COLLECTOR - DISTRIBUTER STREETS
    • 4. LOCAL ACCESS STREETS
  6. FREEWAYS - EXPRESSWAYS
    • I-10
    • LARGE VOLUMES BETWEEN, AROUND AND THROUGH URBAN CENTER. RAPID SPEEDS
  7. ARTERIAL STREETS
    • CAUSEWAY
    • ROADS THAT CONNECT WITH FREEWAYS BY ON AND OFF RAMPS
  8. COLLECTOR - DISTRIBUTER STREETS
    • WEST ESPLANADE
    • TRANSITION BETWEEN LOCAL AND ARTERIALS STREETS.
  9. LOCAL
    LAKEWOOD
  10. MEDIAN / NUTRAL GROUND
    • 7' WIDE IF IT CONTAINS TREES
    • 4' FOR GRASS ONLY
  11. PARKING
    • ANGLE-- PROJECTION-- BAY WIDTH
    • 30 --------15'-7" ------------- 43'-2"
    • 45 --------18'-2" ------------- 48'-4"

    • 400 S.F. PER VEHICLE
    • 1 STALL PER 350S.F. OF BLDG.
    • 1 - 5 PERCENT SLOPE
  12. HANDICPPED REQUIREMENTS
    • 60" TWO WHEEL CHARIS TO PASS
    • 1:20 (5%) SLOPES
    • RAMPS WHEN DROP IS > 1/2"
    • RAMPS MIN OF 3' WIDE AND NOT EXCEED 30'
    • 5' TURNING RADIUS
  13. HC PARKING
    • 7-50 - 2 MIN.
    • 51-100 - 3 MIN
    • 101-150 - 5 MIN.
    • OVER 150 - 5 + 2 FOR EVERY ADDITIONAL 100
  14. COMFORT ZONE
    • 65 TO 75 DEGREES
    • 30 TO 60 % HUMIDITY
  15. SUN SHADES
    • HORIZ. OVERHANGS MOST EFFECTIVE FOR SOUTH
    • VERTICAL FINS MOST EFFECTIVE E & W
  16. u-factor
    • measure of heat transmission
    • number of BTU's per hour that pass thru one s.f. of material
    • low u-valus indicates slow heat loss / gain
    • high u-value indicates rapid loss / gain
  17. thermal inertia
    ability of a material to store heat
  18. 4 soil classifications
    • gravel - over 2 mm
    • sand - .05 to 2 mm
    • silt - .002 to .05 mm
    • clay - under .002 mm
  19. soils A-D
    • A - top soils
    • B - minerals
    • C - weathered fractured rock
    • D - bedrock
  20. Unified Soil Classifications
    • well-graded - variety of grain sizes
    • poorly-graded - same sized particles
  21. ultimate bearing capicity
    • maximum unit preassure without permiting detrimental settlement.
    • gravels / sands - 3000- 1200 psi
    • silts / clays - 1000 - 4000 psi
    • bedrock - 100000 psi
  22. spread footing
    footing that delivers its load directly to the soil

    if load is 200 kips and soil capicity is 4 kips, then footing must be 200/4 = 50 s.f.
  23. foundations costs
    5% of total construction costs
  24. costs of foundation systems
    • 1. spread footing - cheapest
    • 2. drilled CIP concrete piles
    • 3. mat foundations, nbelled caissons, driven piles p most expensive
  25. design of site drainage patterns
    surface water management
  26. runoff
    surface water that does not seep into the ground
  27. ground slopes
    • level - <4%
    • easy grades - 4% - 10%
    • steep grades - > 10%
  28. slope
    G= V/H x 100
  29. typical slopes
    • storm drains - .3%
    • sanitary sewers - .4% - 1.4%
    • Streets drainage - .5%
    • open land - .5%
    • planted / paved areas - 1%
    • ditches / canal - 2% - 10%
    • parking - 5%
    • car ramps - 8%
    • sidewalks - 10%
    • lawns - 25%
  30. vegetation
    • absorb as much as 90% of light
    • reduce winds by 10%
    • reduce temps by 15%
  31. Wale or Whaler
    A horizontal brace of steel or timber used to support sheathing, or other members such as concrete formwork. holds vertical members and formwork in line
  32. Trenching
    Creating a shallow excavations used for pouring small footings and foundation walls or to provide drainage for suraface water.
  33. Shoring
    temporary wood or steel bracing usually set at an angle and used to hold walls in place
  34. Excavation
    the removal of soil from its natural position to allow for construction below grade.
  35. Underpinning
    Providing additional support to an existing foundation by rebuilding or reinforcing
  36. Raker
    A temporary diagonal brace used to support vertical sheeting against earth walls created by excavation
  37. Percolation test
    A test method to determine the rate soil absorbs effluent
  38. Proctor Test
    A test method used to determine the optimum relationship between moisture content and compaction of soil
  39. Alluvium
    Soil or sand deposited by flowing water
  40. Bedrock
    most stable soil
  41. Humus
    Soft dark soil containing decomposed organic matter, poor bearing caacity
  42. Loam
    Rich soil containing equal parts of sand, silt and clay.
  43. Core borings
    soil is removed art regular depths to determine moisture content, density, and porosity
  44. Test Pits
    Visual inspection of soil conditions by digging an open trench
  45. Auger Boring
    An Auger bit is used to bring up soil samples. best in sand or clay at shallow depths
  46. Wash Boring
    Samples are taken with a 2 to 4 inch pipe which forces water to bring up the soil mix
  47. Soil Load Test
    applying incremental loads of soil on a platform erected at the site. the test is complete hen the soil stops settling upon subsequent loading an becomes stable.
  48. Information included in Topo Survey
    • Site contours
    • property boundaries
    • existing bldgs.
    • utility
    • roads
    • vegetation
    • natural features
  49. Acre
    • 43,560 sq. ft.
    • 640 = 1 square mile
  50. Crown
    Always points downhill
  51. Order of sitework
    • 1. set batter boards'
    • 2. remove and save top 6" of soil
    • 3. Earth work: grading and excavation
    • 4. Rough Grading: addition or removal of earth prior to construction.
    • 5. finish grading: preparation for landscaping
  52. Soldier Beam
    heavy timber or steel column driven vertically into the soil and used to hold cribbing boards in palce
  53. Cribbing
    Horizontal boards, 2 to 4 inches thick placed between soldier beams used to hold soil in place during excavation
  54. Paved Area minimum Slope
    1% to 1.5%
  55. methods to Improve Soil Bearing Capacity
    • 1. Fill: poor soil is replaced, then compacted
    • 2. Compaction: of existing soil
    • 3. Densification: use heavy pounding piles, vibration or weights to compact and fill voids
    • 4. Surcharging: adding fill to existing soil and allowing settlement with time
    • 5. Mixing : addition of sand or gravel to the soil.
  56. Vehicle turning Radii
    • Small cars : 16-19 feet
    • standard cars : 19-23 feet
    • large cars : 23-25 feet
    • ambulances : 25-30 feet
    • busses and trucks " 43-50 feet
  57. Four Primary Soil Types
    • 1. Gravels
    • 2. Sands
    • 3. Silts
    • 4. Clays
  58. Azimuth
    angle of the sun measured clockwise from the North point or South point. (angle on ground)
  59. Square footage required per car for parking and circulation
    400 Sq. Ft.
  60. Plat Map
    A land Plan. Component of a survey indicating the metes and bounds
  61. Flume
    an elevated artificial channel that carries fast moving water used to transport items or divert a stream.
  62. Weir
    An embankment, levee or dam formed to hold a river or stream or divert the flow of water.
  63. Methods used to control erosion during construction
    • 1. Silt fence
    • 2. Straw Bale dams / Earth Dikes
    • 3. Hydroseeding or mulch
    • 4. retaining Walls
  64. Sound intensity level
    diminishes by 6dm by doubling the distance.
  65. Distance between contour lines
    contour interval
  66. Noise Intensity
    doubling distance decrease Intensity to 1/4 original.
  67. Floor Area Ratio
    • the ratio between gross floor area of a building to the area of the lot before setbacks.
    • length X width of site, X F.A.R, equals max floor area. then Length X width of sitewithin setbacks divided by the max floor area to get amount of allowable floors.
  68. Four Main Site Factors affecting the Physical form of a building
    • 1. Site to structure relationships
    • 2. Site to form relationship
    • 3. Vegetation
    • 4. Climate
  69. Pad Elevation
    the level of sub grade onto which material will be added to reach finish grade.
  70. Passive Solar Heating
    • Orient bldg long axis east west
    • use thermal massing
    • use Deciduous trees to block sunlight during summer and allow it during winter
  71. Passive Solar Cooling
    • Utilizes:
    • Shading - trees bldgs, horiz louvers on south and vert louvers on E & W
    • Natural ventilation
    • Radiative Cooling - thermal mass
    • Evaporative cooling - utilized wind and water elements
    • Ground coupling - earths cool temp.
  72. Albedo
    potion of radiant energy reflected as it falls on a surface
  73. Metes and Bounds
    property is described narratively starting at one point and describing the length and direction of each line around the property
  74. Meridians
    • North to South lines
    • Principal meridians - serve as a basis of grid layout
    • Guide meridians - other meridians
  75. Parallels
    • East to West Lines
    • Base lInes - principal parallels that serve as basis for grid layout
    • Standard parallels - other parallels.
  76. bioswale
    designed to let sediment settle while water drains into the ground
  77. infiltration basin
    designed to retain stormwater until it can seep into the ground
  78. runoff coefficient
    • fraction of total precipitation falling on a surface that runs off the surface or is not absorbed into the ground.
    • used to calculate the amount of runoff in cubic feet per second on a site
  79. when are traffic signals employed?
    when vehicle volume exceeds 750 cars per hour
  80. 90 degree vs angled parking
    • more cars can be parked at 90 using the same stall widths than 45 or 60.
    • 60, 45, 30 establish a one-way circulation which is easier for the driver to back out
    • 60 degree parking is not as efficient, safe or cost effective as 90 degree; however it is easier for a drive r to use.
  81. road ramps
    • ramps should not exceed 15%
    • for slopes greater than 10%, a transition of 8' at half the slope is required at both ends of ramp.
  82. parking lot slopes
    at least 1%, no more than 5%
  83. ADA Handrails
    should be employed when rise is greater than 6"and run is greater than 72"
  84. hardpan
    mixture of gravel, clay and sand. good foundation
  85. The Natural Step
    environmental credo focusing on the ecosphere and the biosphere
  86. Ahwanee Pricipals
    • set of community principles for land use planning
    • duany
  87. covenant
    a restriction of the deed that regulates land use, aesthetics, etc.
  88. degree days
    the number of degrees that the mean temperature for any day is below 65 degrees
  89. varience
    given when regular enforcement would impose unusual or unreasonable hardship to owner

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