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where are sesamoid bones embedded into
tendons
what are all the tarsal bones of the foot
calcaneus
cuboid
cuneiform (3)
navicular
talus
what is the tarsal bone mnemonic
Come = Calcaneus
To = Talus
Colorado = Cuboid
Next = Navicular
3 Christmases = 3 Cuneiforms
where are the three cuneiform bones located
at the base of the first second and third metatarsal
on a true lateral position what two bones are superimposed over each other
distal fibula is superimposed over posterior half of tibia on a true lateral
what is the longest and strongest bone
femur
what is the angle of distal medial and lateral condyles on a femur
5-7 degree
how many degrees is the CR angled posterior to MTP joint for an ap of the toe
10- 15 degrees posterior to the mtp joint
what are the routine positions for AP toes
ap oblique and lateral
what other bone must we include when taking an xray of the ap toes
minimum of distal 1/2 of metatarsal demonstrated
where is the CR for the first digit of the toes
IP = interphalangeal joint
what are the routine positions for a foot
ap oblique lateral
where is the CR for an AP foot and how much angle is on the tube
base of 3rd metatarsal and angled 10 degrees posteriorly(toward heel) w/ CR perpendicular to the metatarsals
where is the CR and angle of the foot for an oblique foot medial rotation
base of third metatarsal
and 30-40 degree medial rotation of the foot (inwards)
what is a common trauma site for the foot
base of the fifth metatarsal
how many bones are there in the foot and describe all
26 total
14 phalanges
7 tarsals
5 metatarsals
what is the joint that articulates with the base of every toe
metatarsophalangeal
where are sesamoid bones usually found on the foot
on the plantar surface at the head of the first metatarsal
what is the largest and strongest bone of the foot
calcaneus
the sustentaculum tali is found on the
calcaneus
where is a common site for bone spurs
the tuberosity on the bottom of the calcaneus
the articular facets making up the tibial plateau slopes posteriorly at:
10-20 degrees
another term for the patellar surface of the distal femur is
intercondylar sulcus
the knee joint is classified as a what joint
bicondylar
where is the CR for a mediolateral projection of the foot
CR to medial cuneiform
which lateral rotation is best for a lateral view of the foot
mediolateral
where would we CR be for an ap toes of the second phalanx
cr on long axis of the toe and CR at MTP joint of 2nd toe
the oblique positioning of what toes is need for external rotation (lateral rotation)
4 and 5 digit
what digits require medial rotation for an oblique of the toe
digits 1 2 3
where is the CR for a lateral toe of the first digit
IP joint
where is the CR on a lateral position of the toes for digits 2-5
PIP joint
An ap projection of the toes requires all toes in view?
yes but collimate to digit in question or depends on hospital policy
where is the CR and position of the toes when doing oblique position
what is the angle of tube
the CR is perpendicular to the to mtp joint
no angle on tube
toes are positioned on a medial or external rotation depending on which toe
when taking an xray of the calcaneus where is the CR and angulation of the tube
CR is at the base of the third metatarsal to emerge posterior malleoli(lateral) and the cr is angled 40 degrees cephalad
what are the routine positions for the calcaneus
plantodorsal
lateral
where is the cr for a lateral calcaneus (mediolateral projection)
1 inch inferior to medial malleolus
how do we know the patients foot is in a true lateral
when the lateral malleolus about cm posterior to the medial malleolus
What is the kv and cr for an ankle
what should we not ask the patient to do in the position
60 kv and + or - 5 kv
cr mid ankle include up metatarsals and some of the distal tib and fib
do not force dorsiflexion (keep foot in natural position and ensure no rotation
What is the degree of angulation of the ankle in ap mortise
what is parallel to the IR
15-20 degrees until intermelleolar line is parallel to IR
what is the rotation and degree of angulation in a oblique position of the ankle
internal rotation
and 45 degree oblique
what is the position of the feet when doing a tib fib ap
dorsiflexed 90 degrees if possible
how do we know or ensure that the tibia and fibula are in a true lateral position
the patella plane should be perpendicular to to the IR
what is the the kv range and mas for clacaneus
70 @ 16
what is the tech factors for a lateral calcaneus
60 @ 3.2
where is the CR for an ap and oblique ankle
midway between medial and lateral malleoli
what is the joint or joint space that articulates with the distal tibia and talus
tibiotalar joint
an ap of the ankle shows all views of the ankle except what?
the lateral portion
where is the CR for a mediolateral projection of the foot
cr perpendicular to medial cuneiform
what is the routine protocol for a tib and fib
how much dorsiflexion of the foot is needed if possible for an ap projection of the tib/fib
how much of both joints must be included in the ap and lateral
ap and lateral
90 deg
1-2 in
how do we determine a true lateral of the tib/fib and where is the cr