Igneous Rocks: Products of Earth's Internal Fire

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  1. What are the 2 types of Igneous Rock?
    • Extrusive 
    • Intrusive
  2. What is Extrusive?
    • Formed by solidification of lava and/or tephra on earth's surface
    • Outside
  3. What is Intrusive?
    • Formed by solidification of magma within the earth's crust
    • Inside
  4. What is Texture?
    Size and packing of mineral grains
  5. What do intrusive Igneous rocks look like?  Why?
    • Coarse grained 
    • Crystals had time to form due to slowly cooling inside the earth
  6. What do extrusive Igneous rocks look like? Why?
    • Fine grained
    • The crystals did NOT have time to form due to quickly cooling on the outside of the earth
  7. Coarse grained is also called ______.
    • Phanerite
    • Intrusive
  8. Fine grained is also called _______.
    • Aphanite
    • Extrusive
  9. What is Pegmatite?
    Unusually large mineral grains
  10. What is Pophyry?
    • Coarse grains in a fine grained groundmass
    • Porphortitic
  11. What are Phenocrysts?
    Coarse grains found in fine grain ground mass
  12. Why is Obsidian Glassy?
    It cooled so quickly that the atoms aren't able to organize into minerals.
  13. What is Mineral Assemblage?
    ALong with texture, it determines names of igneous rocks
  14. What are the varieties of Intrusive Igneous Rock?
    • Granite
    • Diorite
    • Gabbro
  15. What does Granite have in it?
    Mostly feldspar and quartz, possibly with mica and hornblende
  16. What is the most common Intrusive Igneous Rock?
  17. What does Diorite have in it?
    Mostly Plagioclase, No K-feldspar, No quartz/mica
  18. What does Gabbro have in it?
    Proxene and Olivine, plagioclase
  19. What are the Varieties of Extrusive Igneous Rock?
    • Rhyolite
    • Andesite
    • Basalt
  20. What is the Aphanitic equivalent of Granite?
  21. What is the Aphanitic equivalent of Diorite?
  22. What is the Aphanitic equivalent of Gabbro?
  23. WHat is a Pyroclast?
    Fragment of rock ejected during a volcanic eruption
  24. What is Tephra?
    • Deposit of pyroclasts
    • bombs
    • lapilli
    • ash
  25. What is Agglomerate?
    Coarse, bomb sized tephra particles
  26. What is tuff?
    • Fine grained
    • Lapilli - ash sized tephra particles
  27. What is welded tuff?
    • Glassy
    • Produced when individual hot ash particles fuse
  28. What are plutons?
    All bodies of intrusive igneous rock, regardless of size or shape
  29. What are dikes?
    Tabular sheet like body that cuts across layering of rock it intrudes
  30. What are sills?
    Tabular sheet like bodies that are parallel to layering of rock they intrude
  31. What is a Laccolith?
    Parallel to layering of rock, but has bent layers above it into a dome
  32. What is a Volcanic pipe?
    Cylindrical conduit that fed magma to vent
  33. What are some minor Plutons?
    • Dike
    • Sills
    • Laccolith
    • Volcanic pipe
  34. What are some major Plutons?
    • batholith
    • stock
  35. What is a Batholith?
    Large, irregularly shaped pluton that cuts across layering of rock
  36. What is stock?
    Irregularly shaped plutons, like batholiths, but smaller
  37. What is Magmatic differentiation by fractional crystallization?
    Compositional changes caused by sinking of early crystalized minerals to bottom of magma chamber
  38. What is Bowen't reaction series?
    Sequence in which minerals crystallize from cooling magma
  39. Crystals with the highest melting point ______ first
  40. What is the Continuous reaction series?
    Ca-rich (calcium) plagioclase - Na-rich (sodium) plagiolase
  41. What is the Discontinuous reaction series?
    Olivine - Pyroxene - Amphibole - Biotite
Card Set:
Igneous Rocks: Products of Earth's Internal Fire
2014-01-29 03:10:15
Geology Igneous Rocks

Igneous Rocks: Products of Earth's Internal Fire
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