Exam 1 NUR 114

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  1. What does an Analgesic Medication do?
    relieves pain without causing loss of consciousness
  2. what are analgesic medications referred to?
  3. analgesic definition
    • medication that relieves pain without causing loss of consciousness
    • commonly called painkillers
    • Controlled drugs and must be under lock
  4. opioid analgesics
    • originate from opium plant
    • very strong pain relievers
    • classified according to strength
  5. what are the 3 Opioid Analgesics clinically used in the US
    • Morphine
    • Codeine
    • Paoverine
  6. what does it mean to have no ceiling effect
    they continue to work and continue the effect as the doses increase
  7. when are opioids contraindicated?
    • respiratory insufficiency
    • severe asthma
    • patient has known drug allergies
    • elevated intracranial pressure
    • pregnancy (not know to cause birth defect but avoid if possible)
  8. what are indications for Opioids
    • Alleviate moderate to severe pain
    • can be combined with adjunvant analgesics to enhance effects and reduce side effects
    • Suppress GI mobility (Lomotil)
    • CNS Supression (cough suppressant)
    • Balanced Anesthesia (combine with inhalation agents to enhance)
  9. "mechanism of action"
    What are the 3 Categories?
    • Full Agonist
    • Partial Agonist
    • Antagonists
  10. What is a full agonist
    • FULLY attaches to pain receptors
    • meds bind to pain receptors in the brain and causes an analgesic reaction from release of ENDORPHINS
  11. What is Partial Agonist
    • meds partially bind to opioid pain receptors and cause limited pain reduction
    • less risk of addiction
  12. What is antagonist
    • substances that reverse the agonist on pain receptors
    • pulls med off receptors and Covers the pain receptor so agonists cannot come back and bind
  13. Side effects/ adverse Effects of Opioid
    • hypotension, flushing, palpitations
    • sedation, euphoria, disorientation, lightheadedness, dizziness, tremors
    • N/V, constipation
    • Urinary Retention
    • Itching, Rash
    • Respiratory Depression,
    • dependence, withdrawl
  14. Morphine
    • Full Agonist
    • strong potential for misuse
    • gradually withdraw for long term patients
    • St Johns Wart and Kava Kava enhance sedative effects
  15. Alkaloid obtained from opium
  16. Fentanyl
    • very potent short acting synthetic opioid
    • treats moderate to severe pain
    • used in adjunct with general anesthesia
  17. patients with Myasthenia Graves cannot take what opioid
  18. fentanyl used patch can....
    • kill a child or animal
    • Never flush or leave where it can be discovered
    • Dispose of in sharps container
  19. when fentanyl patch is removed in hospital setting what must the nurse do
    have a second nurse sign off that it was destroyed/ wasted correctly
  20. Demerol
    Not used much anymore
  21. Methadone
    • Full Agonist
    • half life is extremely long
    • cheapest opioid
    • used as detox
  22. Hydromorphine
  23. Dilaudid
    Full Agonist
  24. Opioids with mixed actions
    Buprenex, Stadol and Talwain are
    • Partial Agonists
    • Are potent synthetic analgesics but less potential for addiction
  25. Codeine
    • Full Agonist
    • Similar to Morphine but not as effective
    • Controls Mild to Moderate Pain
    • Can cause upset stomach
  26. Darvon
    • taken off the market
    • Has a ceiling effect
    • too much will not increase effect will damage organs
  27. Oxycodone
    • tablet, liquid or capsule
    • Often mixed with ASA or Tylenol
    • High abuse potential
  28. Opioid/Acetaminophen Combos are ,,,
    more dangerous because the tylenol
  29. Narcan
    • Antagonist
    • blocks the pain receptor so the agonist cannot bind to it
    • Only works for opioid
  30. if giving patient Opioid the nurse should reassess
    • every 30 min for IM or IV
    • every hour if PO
  31. why is it important for the nurse to monitor urinary output
    opioid can cause urinary retention
  32. if you are discharging a patient with opiates what should nurse do
    • teach how to take, do take if don't need, don't wait until pain unbearable
    • explain side effects to look for
    • never share meds
  33. what are nonopioid analgesics?
    • ASA
    • Acetaminophen
    • NSAIDS nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs
    • managed mild pain especially caused by inflammatory conditions
    • They have CEILING
  34. what is Acetaminophen usefor
    • headache
    • fever
    • few side effects but toxic to Liver
  35. Salicylates (ASA) and NSAIDS
    analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory meds
  36. what is the only IV NSAID
  37. TENS Unit
    provides skin stimulation which produces pain relief
  38. Adjuvant Analgesics
    2 drugs given together to increase the effect
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Exam 1 NUR 114
2014-01-29 04:13:32
nursing 114

exam 1 nursing 114
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