114 NUR chap 5 pain the fifth vital sign

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  1. Pain is....
    • universal
    • subjective
    • most common reason people seek medical care
    • alters quality of life more than any single health related problem
  2. what is the nurse's role with patient's pain
    • Believe the patient's reports of pain
    • Advocate for the Patient
    • Understand there is no diagnostic test for pain, onle subjective reports are available
  3. when is pain a good thing
    warning to stop before injury is caused
  4. Definition of Pain
    unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage

    Whatever the person experiencing says it is and exists whenever he or she says it does
  5. what is the physical impact of pain?
    • prolongs stress response
    • increase Heart Rate, BP, and O2 demands
    • decreases GI motility
    • causes immobility
    • decreases immune response
    • delays healing
    • increases risk for chronic pain
  6. how does pain impact the quality of life?
    • interferes with ADLs
    • causes anxiety, depression, fear, anger and sleeplessness
    • impairs family, work and social relationships
  7. what are the characteristics of ACUTE Pain?
    • Short duration
    • well defined cause
    • decreased as healing occurs
    • reversible
    • ranges from mild to severe
    • "Beneficial"
  8. what are the characteristics of CHRONIC Pain
    • lasts at least 3 months
    • may not have well defines cause
    • begins gradually and persists
    • often accompanied by depression, fatigue, and decreased functional ability
    • "Exhausting and Useless"
  9. different categories of Pain
    • Acute
    • Chronic cancer pain
    • Chronic non-cancer pain
  10. acute pain  is
    you fix the problem and the pain goes away
  11. to perceive pain....
    • the stimulus must be sent through the spinal cord to the brain and the brain sends an impulse back the body part.
    • if stimulus cannot make there and back you donot feel the impulse
  12. what are A delta fibers?
    myelinated fibers that carry SHARP, or PIERCING sensations.

    they are localized and easily defined
  13. What are C fibers?
    poorly myelinated fibers.  Pain conduction is slow and diffuse causing pain perception as dull, diffuse, burning, and achy this pain is persistant.

    (inpulse gets lost or misplaced because the poorly myelinated fibers)
  14. what is the gate control theory
    • to feel pain the nerve impulse has to travel from limb to spinal cord to the brain. there is a gate at the spinal cord. if gate is open impulse travels.
    • Endorphins can cause the gate to close
    • we know use cognitive therapy to help with pain because happy thoughts and emotions cause release of Endorphins and closes the gate
  15. superficial pain
    • pain from surface areas
    • road rash, bite
  16. Visceral Pain
    • pain from smooth muscles and organs
    • hard to dx kidney stone, gallbladder
  17. intractable pain
    chronic pain that cannot be managed by standard therapies
  18. somatic pain
    pain of skeletal muscle. ligaments and joints
  19. Vascular Pain
    • pain from vascular or perivascular tissues contributing to migraines or headaches.
    • Sharp and Throbbing
  20. Neuropathic Pain
    pain from nerve fibers, spinal cord and CNS
  21. Localized Pain
    confined to site of origin
  22. Projected Pain
    pain along specific nerve or nerves
  23. Radiating Pain
    • diffuse pain around the site of origin
    • radiates
  24. Referred Pain
    pain perceived in an area distant form painful stimuli
  25. why is pain undertreated
  26. drug seekers
    • cultural or society attitudes regarding use of opiates
    • physician fear of regulations
    • Pt fear of becoming addicted
  27. vasoconstriction is not what causes brain freeze pain it is ...
    the vasospasm
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114 NUR chap 5 pain the fifth vital sign
Exam 1 chap 5 PAin
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