BI0004 - Lecture 1 - Nutrition Intro

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james14hunter
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259008
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BI0004 - Lecture 1 - Nutrition Intro
Updated:
2014-02-18 07:25:16
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BI0004 Lecture
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BI0004 - Lecture 1
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  1. Why do animals need nutrition?
    (5)
    • Energy
    • Growth & Reproduction
    • Maintenance of Cells/System/Body
    • Instinct
    • Pleasure
  2. Why do animals need nutrition for Energy and Growth?
    (3)
    • "Fuel" for producing ATP
    • Building/Reproducing
    • Repairing/Developing
  3. Why do animals need nutrition for Maintenance?
    (4)
    • Synthesis of cellular components
    • Co-factors
    • Mineral compounds
    • Homeostasis
  4. Primary producers are...
    Autotrophs
  5. Primary consumers...
    • Feed on primary producers
    • (Feed on detritus)
  6. Secondary consumers...
    • Feed on primary consumers
    • Predation (usually)
  7. Autotrophs...
    (5)
    • Obtain energy solely from the environment
    • Sunlight (Photoautotrophs)
    • Atmospheric chemicals
    • Geological chemicals (Chemoautotrophs)
    • Organic chemicals
  8. Heterotrophs...
    (7)
    • Obtain energy from other organisms
    • Herbivores
    • Carnivores
    • Omnivores
    • Saprophytes/Detritovores
    • Parasites
    • Symbionts
  9. Available free energy...
    • Decreases up trophic levels due to...
    • Energy used by prey and...
    • Energy not eaten by predator..
  10. Gross primary production (GPP)
    Amount of light/chemical energy fixed by a primary producer
  11. Net primary production (NPP)
    • Amount of light energy fixed into BIOMASS
    • (i.e. is not used by the autotroph for respiration etc.)
  12. NPP and GPP are linked with formula...
    NPP = GPP - R
  13. Production Efficiency definition
    % of energy assimilated that is converted into biomass
  14. Production efficiency equation
    Production efficiency = (Net productivity / assimilation) X 100%
  15. Trophic/Transfer efficiency definition
    % of energy assimilated that can be acquired by next trophic level
  16. Trophic/Transfer efficiency equation
    Transfer efficiency = (Prodn at trophic level n / Prodn at trophic level n-1) x 100%
  17. Dry weight (g/m2) of trophic levels...
    Decreases up trophic levels
  18. Biomagnification
    The increasing concentration of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain.
  19. Animals which get nutrients from the environment have to consider...
    (3)
    • How to harvest
    • How to assimilate
    • How to retain stores
  20. Animals which get nutrients from organisms have to consider...
    (4)
    • How to harvest/catch
    • Capture vs Benefit balance
    • How to assimilate
    • How to retain stores
  21. Defensive strategies include...
    (4)
    • Avoid being eaten
    • Avoid being sought-after
    • Avoid being found
    • Avoid being caught
  22. Other nutritional strategies include...
    (3)
    • Mutualism
    • Symbiosis
    • Parasitism

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