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What is perception?
Perception is how we make sense out of our senses and how we interpret our senses. It allows us to choose the information that is important to us.
What 5 things influence perception?
- Nature of the stimulus (is the object big, small, bright, loud, etc.)
- Change, repetition, size, and intensity
- Background and surroundings of a stimulus
- Previous experiences
- Our own personal feelings, attitudes, and needs
What's the definition of defense mechanisms?
- Ways of dealing with a problem so that it is less troublesome
- Indirect ways of coping used by everyone
- Are not harmful unless we come to rely on them
What are the seven types of defense mechanisms?
- Reaction Formation
Explain the Fantasy defense mechanism.
Fantasy - When a person constantly daydreams of something that could happen to them.
Explain the Denial defense mechanism.
Denial - When reality is too unpleasant, we may deny its existence.
Explain the Repression defense mechanism.
Repression - The person pushes undesirable thoughts or painful memories out of the conscious mind.
Explain the Reaction Formation defense mechanism.
Reaction Formation - When people unconsciously replace strong feelings with their opposite, sometimes in an extreme way.
Explain the Projection defense mechanism.
Projection - A person avoids their own undesirable qualities by labeling others with the same qualities.
Explain the Regression defense mechanism.
Regression - When a problem gets too big to solve in a mature way, one goes back to childish ways (tantrums) or having others solve it for them.
Explain the Rationalization defense mechanism and it's two subcategories.
Rationalization - When people can't explain their own behaviour so they try to reason with themselves. They won't accept the real reasons.
- Sour Grapes - When we cannot reach a goal, we may tell ourselves and others that it was undesirable anyway.
- Sweet Lemons - We tell ourselves that what we have or what we are is what we wanted anyway. Reverse of Sour Grapes.
What are the two types of problem behaviour?
- Similar to having exaggerated defense mechanisms which are relied upon heavily and last longer
- Methods of dealing with anxieties to escape realities
- Cannot cope successfully with daily life
What are the characteristics of neuroses? (6)
- aware of their problem
- cannot cope well but are in touch with reality
- show unnecessary fear and anxiety in situations that don't warrant it
- not as severe as psychoses
- do not have hallucinations, delusions, personality changes
- often understand their problem
What are the 7 types of neuroses?
- Anxiety - severe, chronic, acute
- Hysterical Reaction
- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
- Much more severe than neuroses
- Sometimes caused by organic and chemical damage
- Usually accompanied by hallucinations and delusions
What are the characteristics of psychoses? (5)
- Unable to function normally
- Lose touch with reality, completely distorting it through hallucinations and delusions
- Personality changes and mood shifts
- Confused as to time, place, or people
- Don't understand their problem, unaware of their behaviour
What are the three types of psychoses?
- Organic Psychoses
- Functional Psychoses
- Personality Disorders
What is Organic Psychoses?
Organic problems, vitamin deficiencies, poisons, accidents that damage brain.
What are the two types of Functional Psychoses?
- Manic Depression - Depression levels from super high to suicidal and extreme mood swings.
- Schizophrenia - Lose contact with reality, often live in fantasy, emotionally flat, hallucinations, delusions, very illogical.
What are the four types of Schizophrenia?
- Simple Schizophrenia
- Hebephrenic - Very childlike behaviour
- Catatonic - Rigid and withdrawn, may assume same position for hours
- Paranoid - Delusions, they often feel they're being persecuted
What are the two types of Personality Disorders?
- Multiple Personality Disorder
- Psychopathic Personality - Has no conscience
What are the three methods of treatment for neuroses and psychoses?
- Drugs and medical care
- Psychotherapy and behavior modification
What is the modern definition of intelligence?
The ability to learn from past experiences. It results from biological inheritance and past experiences (nature and nurture).
What is the old-fashioned definition of intelligence?
I.Q (Intelligence Quotient) - An attempt to measure intellectual ability and is a good indicator of probable success in school, however may not be a good indicator of a person's other skills and abilities and it only tests mathematical and english abilities.
Who were Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon?
The first to develop a standard test to measure intelligence.
Calculating I.Q - Equation
- MA (mental age) - one's intellectual ability
- CA (chronological age) - one's age in actual years
MA/CA x 100 = I.Q
Definition of self-fulfilling prophecy
The phenomenon which occurs when a person lives up to the label given to them.
There is no evidence that any race or ethnic group has more intelligence than any other. Why, then, do minority groups score lower on I.Q tests? (3 reasons)
- Experiences differ from those of the test makers
- Minority groups tend to be poor, therefore they are at a disadvantage
- Tests are class and culturally biased, geared for middle class white Americans
What are the 6 weaknesses of I.Q tests?
- Assume that I.Q tests can measure intelligence
- Assume that I.Q is stable/unalterable
- Tests are culturally biased
- Doesn't measure any other skills and abilities
- Doesn't consider the subjects' state of mind
- Pigeon hole effect - test may sometimes label students incorrectly causing self-fulfilling prophecy
What are the 9 Multiple Intelligences?
- Linguistic - languages, writing, expressing one's thoughts
- Musical - ability to hear tones, rhythms, identifying notes, musical patterns
- Logical-Mathematical - ability to manipulate numbers, quantities, operations, love of dealing with abstraction
- Spatial - ability to see spatial world in your mind
- Bodily Kinesthetic - ability to use body to solve a problem, create, produce
- Intrapersonal - ability to know and understand one self's goals, tendencies, limitations
- Interpersonal - ability to notice and make distinctions among individuals, understanding of others
- Naturalist - ability to see patterns among living things, sensitive to natural world
- Existential - seek deeper meanings to life's questions
How is self-fulfilling prophecy shown positively in the film "Stand and Deliver"?
- Kids told that math is in their blood
- Mr. Escalante shows faith in the kids
- Students internalize his comments and begin living up to his good expectations
How is self-fulfilling prophecy shown negatively in the film "Stand and Deliver"?
- Kids told they were slow learners and wouldn't amount to anything
- Won't go to uni/college
- Would become a gang member
In the film "Stand and Deliver", what was Mr. Escalante's self-fulfilling prophecy?
- Told he wouldn't be able to teach calculus to "slow learners"
- Told he was setting the kids up for failure