Evol. Psy 2

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Evol. Psy 2
2014-01-29 13:48:44
Evolutionary psychology

Evol psy
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  1. What are the three common fallacies in evolutionary psy theory?
    • 1. Phylogeny
    • "Good genes" are passed on but takes average 15.000 years to spread, thus, good characteristics do not pass over a few generations.
    • 2. How sex, genes and environment are interrelated
    • Appearance have essentially nothing to do with environment but is due solely to inheritance. 
    • 3. Survival of the fittest
    • Fitness happens on a genetic level. Strength is not necessarily good, it all depends on REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS.
  2. Thales proposed what about "evolution"
    • Natural element: All things are water. 
  3. Empedocles thought evolution worked in what way?
    Bodily organ "pools" where the organs float around and eventually construct animals...
  4. Erasmus Darwin argued what?
    • - Common Ancestor
    • - Driving force was competition
  5. Who formed the first proper theory of evolution?
    "Changes in environment lead to changes in behaviour which in turn determine which organs and how much these are utilized."
    • LAMARCK! 
    • Changes in environment lead to changes in behaviour which in turn determine which organs and how much these are utilized.
  6. Lamarck incorrectly assumed what regarding heritability?
    • Ontological changes (Due to environment during an organisms life span) is heritable onto next generations. This
    • is incorrect because ontological changes are not heritable, but recent resurgence
    • due to cultural influence.
  7. Mendel was the "grand father" of what, and what did he notice that Darwin missed?
    Father of Genetics. Experimented with Peas, noted that genes are not just 50% from mother or 50% from father but depends on genotype which determine what is expressed (phenotype). He noted this because if you mix red with white colored flowers on the plants, the result is not pink as Darwin would say. Dominant vs. recessive genes.
  8. Father of Eugenics and Psychometrics, Focused on Intelligence and Characteristics?
  9. Tooby and Cosmides resisted the resistance to Sociobiology/evolutionary theory that came from Galton's (TERM? choosing genetics to progress human kind...).
    What did Tooby and Cosmides explain comparing to Sociobiology?
    • They managed to put evolutionary theory back into the psychological science by explaining mental life/cognition rather than biology.
    • However, they still retained the MIND MODULARITY principle.
  10. Anytime a human being pairs anything living to form another living object that is
    different from both the parents then this has been
    Artificially selected.
  11. Does Natural selection have any ultimate goals, or what is its "purpose(s)", if any?
    No ultimate goal but 1. Reproductive success and 2. Adaptation to environment
  12. Most mutations do not show in the 
    A) Genotype 
    B) Phenotype 
    and if there is a mutation that has an effect on ... - Then it is mostly 
    A) Positive
    B) Negative
    C) Neutral
    • B) Phenotype
    • B) Negative
  13. Humans could be said to be a WHAT for Genes? (with ref. to selfish gene)
    A) Replicator
    B) Vehicle
    C) Conscious mind
    B) Vehicle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Altruism was PASSED ON by the SELFISH GENE - True or False?
    True, because it increases reciprocal fitness. Especially kin-altruism which increases inclusive fitness.
  15. What is the "paradox of sexual selection"
    Genes that may further your sexual success may make your life span shorter, i.e. peacocks tail
  16. What type of selection is generally regarded as being responsible for males developing
    weapons to compete with each other such as large teeth and horns, greater
    musculature and a lower threshold for aggression when compared to their female
    Intrasexual selection
  17. What is the term for selection between male - females?  
    Are females or males the driving force?
    • INTERsexual selection.
    • This consists of members of one sex attempting to impress members of the other; in this case the emphasis is on the females since they are generally the ones that need to be impressed before they will assent to mating.
  18. Courtship display in males and e.g. brighter ornaments or more muscles can contribute to what type of selection?
    INTERsexual selection as it may increase chance of impressing (usually) the female
  19. Who came up with Runaway selection?
  20. Sexual selection is a direct FUNCTION (f) of What according to Who
    The TIME each parent has to invest in the offspring. Parental Investment according to Trivers
  21. Give examples of why casual sex might not be of such a high cost today as during the EEA, for females?
    • 1. DNA-proof can determine obligation of real father...
    • 2. Laws and stuff prevent dad from just leaving
    • 3. Being on The Pill to prevent pregnancy, and condoms etc.
    • 4. Abortion generally safe and usually legal
  22. Can Natural selection "compete" with Sexual selection? Give an example
    Yes, it may be for example if sexual reproduction increases with a larger tale for the peacock but at the same time they are less adapted to the environment (natural selection) due to survival.
  23. Mention some disadvantages with sexual as opposed to asexual species from an evol. perspective
    You only pass on 50% of the genes, Courtship, Flirting etc. is time consuming i.e. costly.
  24. Mention some disadvantages of asexual species vs. compared to sexually reproducing species?
    Harmful Mutations are passed on 100% of the time, i.e. take much longer to "dissapear" through selection. Evolve slower in the environment as well due to no crossing-over during sex, e.g. natural variation due to shared genes from mother-father.
  25. Ratchet effect?
    Faster evolution as sexually reproducing species do not pass on disadvantageous mutations etc. as fast as asexual species, and similarly pass on positive traits faster, too.
  26. What is fundamental for humans the "Arms Race" to keep happening in the fight against harmful bacteria etc.
  27. Which primate, and % of genes shared?
    Social, live in groups, males form the permanent core of society,
    females leaves the group of origin to join a different group upon reaching
    sexual maturity; females attract males during ovulation, multiple encounters or
    Chimpanzees, 98% of genes shared
  28. Which primate, and % of genes shared?
    - Only other savannah adapted primate, also
    carnivorous, male hunting, parallel dominance hierarchies in males and females,
    relationships, between males and females, male guarding.
    Baboons, 94% of genes shared
  29. Why do females not hunt?
    Cost of child-bearing too high, EEA has ensured they are not as muscular etc. thus not as suitable to hunt as men.
  30. What are some important characteristics that are attractive to both females and males for long term relationships?
    • - Bonding, i.e. Love
    • - Physical characteristics, though MUCH more important to males
  31. Why is there a selection for MASS (mucles) in Gorillas?
    Protect female, court with one female only, fight other males (intrasexual selection)
  32. In the human species male prove
    intermediate in both counts, suggesting that they needed more sperm than
    gorillas but more guarding than chimps. 
    True or False?
  33. Are humans Monogamous?
    Yes, BUT with an "acceptable degree of error"
  34. What determines the time of the "critical period"
  35. Everything which is not reproductive fitness is WHAT type of fitness. Also give an example of this type of fitness.
    Somatic fitness, i.e. everything except fucking... Make money, parenting (inclusive fitness/somatic fitness).