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Egyptians contributions to the history of funeral service
- Religion-Considered to be the primary purpose for embalming in Egypt
- Sanitation-Considered to be the 2nd purpose for embalming in Egypt
- Climate-the aspect of life & existence in Egypt played a great part in success of the Egyptian mummification process
3 Biblical references for embalming in Egypt
- the word embalming is found 3 times in the bible
- Genesis: Chapter 50; Verses 2,3, & 26
Who was Herodotus?
Herodotus was known,
as the "Father of History" and stated that the Egyptian's were considered to be the 1st to believe in the immortality of the soul
Circle of Necessity
Egyptians believed that the soul of the deceased had to mae a journey to the sun & back which too as long as 3,000 years to complete
Two cults of worship in Egypt
- 1. Sun Worshippers
- 2. Cults of Osiris
Who was Osiris?
an Egyptian God
Other names for Osiris?
"god of the underworld and Judge of the dead"
Osiris was linked with 2 forces of fertility in Egypt?
Sun and Nile River
Osiris was the head of a trinity or triangle of family as gods?
How was Osiris represented
What other god was Osiris comparable to?
The Greek God "Dinoysos" god of wine and fertility
Themes of death & the life beyond
Sun worshipers and Cult of Osiris
The practice of embalming was a major importance why?
due to the belief that the deceased would resume normal activites in the after life if they successfully passed the "judgment of Osiris"
How did art of restoriative art come into existance?
due to the belief that the body had to be complete and as normal as possible to successfully complete the journey known as the Circle of Necessity.
"Center of the Universe"
All elements of the body were restored & be reunited when?
in the afterlife
The Elements of the Body
had to be restored & would be reunited in the afterlife, thus the ritual of mummification became utmost importance
the soul of the individual
the self od double of the individual
Individual Elements are
BA & KA
What remained in the grave & demanded attention from the living?
Why did the deceased leave behind an estate
so that the family or friends would have money to take care of the sacrafices
Shining One or the personality of the individual
Considered the identity of the individual
Comparable to ones Guardian Angel
Seat of Intellect/Emotion
Considered to be the Secondary Purpose for embalming in Egypt
What happened during the period of inundation caused by the annual overflow of the Nile River?
The Egyptians were unable to bury their dead thus creating unsanitary conditions, resulting in more deaths.
Writers believed the custom of embalming was due to what?
the frequency of the plagues & other death-dealing diseases which struck Egypt
This aspect of life & existence in Egypt played a great part in success of the Egyptian mummification process.
Different Aspects of the Egyptian Funeral were seperated by
Cost & type of Egyptian funeral
Classifications & their present day comparative worth:
- Expensive-over $70,000.
- Medium-around $25,000
- Inexpensive-less thean $7,000
Reasons, which varied the cost of embalming:
- Time involved
- Wealth of the individual or family
- Embalmers technique & individuality
- The Dynasty or Period in time (different kingdom)
Expensive method of Embalming steps:
- 1. Removal of the brain
- 2. Evisceration through an abdominal Incision
- 3. Covering with natron
- 4. The Drying process
- 5. The bandaging process
Infusion of Drugs and use of an iron hook were used where and for what?
to remove the brain, through the nostrills
What was used to pac the cranial cavity?
linen strips soaked in palm wine
When removing all the organs through the side of the abdomen wall what insturment is used?
"Ethiopian Stone" or sacred stone knife
The cavity walls were bathed and the extracted organs were soaked in what?
palm wine solution
After soaking, if the organs were not returned to the cavities where were they placed?
special containers known as "Canopic Jars"
The 4 Canoptic Jars were each named after who
the four sons of the god Horus
Names of the Canoptic Jars
IMSET- "Human Head" protected the liver
DUAMUTEF-"Jackal's Head" protected the stomach
HAPI-"Ape's Head" protected the lungs
QUEBEH-SNEWEF-"Hawk's Head" protected the intestines
Where were the Heart & kidneys left
in the cavity
After the body was covered in natron
it was then totally coated w/ salt solution after 20 days the body was washed then cleaned with water & prepared for the drying solution
The Drying Process
when the body is laid in the sun to dry for a period, which could last in excess of 20 days
The bandaging process:
this was ceremonial & took a number of days to complete, it required the use of some 1,200 yards of 3 1/4 bandaging material, with a perfect geometric pattern accomplished with this procedure, the bandages would be soaked with wine, oils & various spirits to give a pleasant order, the completed mummy was returned to the family for final disposition
medium priced embalming method consist of:
- the injection of cedar oil into the adomen
- then immersion of the body in a natron solution
- drying the body in the air
- finally body was returned to the family
cedar oil was dicovered to be capable of what?
dissolving the viscera
Inexpensive embalming procedure was likely to involve any one of the three things?
- Quick immersion in a natron solution
- Tanning process similar to that used for leather treatment
- immersion in a molten asphalt substance, which coated the body to provide protection
Special individuals considered very important to the preperation of the body;
- Physician or Priest
- Surgeon of Chief Embalmer
- Apothecary of Pharmacist
- Apothecary sevants or Pollinctors
- Dissector or Anatomist
- Designer of Painter
physician or priest
was considered highest on the social scale, main function was the supervision of all, activities involved including the embalming & preparation for the actual funeral & procession
Surgeon of Chief Embalmer
status in the community was high on the social ladder but no as high as the priest, in direct supervision of all the embalming procedure & for the well-to-do he would actually perform the procedure himself including the wrapping process & background included extensive knowledge of anatomy & medicine
Apothecary of Pharmacist
chief duty was to compound the spices, oils & spirits used in the embalming process
Apothecary servants or Pollinctors
main function was to apply the oils & spices to the body
Dissector or Anatomist
principal job was to perform the evisceration & washing of the remains
Desinger of Painter
task was the designing & construction of the burial receptacls for which there were obviously various prices
The "Father of History" Herodotus list the three most important individuals to the embalming process as:
- Physician or Priest
- Surgeon or Chief Embalmer
- Apothecary or Pharmacist
From a ceremonial standpoint who were listed as very important to the embalming process:
- Scribe or lawyer
- Dissector or Anatomist
Scribe or lawyer
job was to correctly locate & mark w/ a peice of charcoal, the location for the abdominal incision
Dissector or Anatomist
was the one who actually made the incision w/ the Ethopian stone, after the incision was closed & sealed w/ wax, an engraged plate w/ what was believed to be the "eye of Osiris" was placed in the chamber of the waxed incision
- was a walled suburb of the city where all body preparations too place,
- was a place of great fear for the public,
- all individuals involved in embalming process were confined there for life, except the physican who could come and go as needed
Evolution of the Egyptian Coffins:
- desire in the early periods of Egyptian history was to keep bodies from touching the earth.
- materials were used to protect the bodies
- From Xth Dynasty (2,500 B.C.) down to days of the Empires, coffins were an important role
- between XIIth & XVIIIth Dynasties, the shape of the coffin changed to anthropoid
- a summary of Egyptian burial receptacles
- the interment service
- burial location
Early materials used to protect the body were:
- mats & skins of lower animals
- wooden & earthenware baskets
the massive rectangular sarcophagus coffins were in
vogue in earlier historial periods
What covered the exterior of coffins?
- Hieroglypic inscriptions that were devoted to prayers, genealogies, religious & magical texts.
- to help the restoration of the body & person, but to aid & give power to the dead in the afterlife
the face of the dead was reproduced, by wood carving then later by cartonage-a mixture of linen & stucco & painted in a life-like resemblance
the problem with anthopoid coffins
getting the right proportions of the face, they also depicted the hands crossed usually holding agricultural implements
final development of anthropoid coffins, developed under the Romans in the 2nd century A.D. which instead of modeled head, the face was painted on a wooden panel held in place by bandaging
Order of Egyptian burial receptacles:
- Earliest materials-mats & animal skins, reed & wood or earthenware baskets
- Sarcophagus caskets or coffins
- Anthropoid coffins
- Portriat coffins-credited to Roman invention
- after death, judgement by legal tribunal held before the right to burial was granted
- physician or priest was in complete charge of arrangement for the procession
- transportation of mummy on a sledge pulled by oxen or men
- order of individuals in the procession
judgment of legal tribunal
weighing of the heart of anubis was the process to determin if the deceased was of good character or unfortunatley deserved burial in a common pit
order of individuals in th funeral procession:
- religious representatives
- family of the deceased
- professional mourners
- personal slaves of the deceased
- at end were friends and distant kin of deceased
- priest & assistants in undisputed control
- when tomb (eternal house) was reached the coffin was set up on end & turned to face the south
- prayers offered before the mummy by various persons, sacred rites are performed
- principal pupose of rites at tomb is to bring about a restoration of all bodily functions of the mummy to be prepared for it's long journey in the next world
- utilized earth burial in common grave pits
- earliest type of tombs is the mastaba (a massive building or retangular shape)
- later tombs consisted of long subterranean passages leading to a series of chambers
- the Pyramids were the ultimate & designed by the pharaohs s their Eternal home
The earlies graves were in
the Nile Valley, consisted of shallow hollows dug in sandy & shingly ground beyond the mud deposits left from the annual inundation by the Nile River
were irregular in shape but mostly round & suggested the intention to dispose of the body w/ the least trouble
vessels of rude shape & coarse earthenware were placed where?
about the body containing funeral offerings such as grain even objects as a flint weapon, hand axes & knives
- a massive building of rectangular shape, consisted of 3 parts;
- a chamber, sedab & pit (is the place into which the mummy in it's coffin was lowered)
in an attempt to thwart tomb robbers,
the mummy was placed sillfylly secreted in a sepulchral chamber