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- The theory of social and economic organizations originally published in
- Weber intended for bureaucracy (which literally means “an ideal organization”) to eliminate ambiguity and capriciousness in organizational life.
- wrote Principles of scientific management
- in 1911. Taylor believed the central problem in organizational effectiveness involved task inefficiencies and management’s
- inability to obtain compliance from workers. The way to get more compliance?
- Offer efficient ways to
- earn more money
who wrote General and industrial management originally published in 1916. Fayol was a successful manager, who headed alarge French coal mining company, which he brought from the brink of bankruptcy to a record of effective performance
Human Relations Perspective
- Neoclassical management
- $$ + Employee Satisfaction = Productivity
A happy worker is a productive worker
- Hawthorne Effect," when you
- change--typically improve--your behavior because you know someone is watching
- you. These people were pleased someone noticed
- Perhaps the greatest criticism toward the
- perspective was that it was often manipulative and insincere
- the worker having been manipulated into thinking
- that management cared first about their personal well being.
- Remember, the HR1
- perspective was primarily concerned with allowing and encouraging employee opinion
- and listening to them.
- Human Resources (HR2)
- approach, so is actively seeking it out and regularly adopting what is
- proposed. From this perspective, meaningful
- interactions with colleagues, subordinates, and bosses are critical for tapping
- into new ideas and creative problem solving
- Need fulfillment
- (especially self‑actualization) => Satisfaction => Productivity
Maslov - motivational needs are hierarchically organized -
- • Physiological
- needs (for food, oxygen, and other basic requirements to sustain life.)
- • Safety
- needs (for security, protection from danger, freedom from threat.)
- • Social
- needs (for love, affection, affiliation, and acceptance.)
- • Esteem
- needs (for sense of status, recognition, and self‑respect.)
- • Self‑actualization needs (realization of
- one's full potential as a human being--"being all that you can be.")
HR2 Job enrichment
- setting up work so that it
- generates a sense of achievement, responsibility, and fulfillmen
grew out of a well-established framework--General Systems Theory (GTS)
communication as the "lifeblood of the organization."
- Communication dominates the systems
- perspective, which thrives on the notion of information as the means to adapt
- to changing environments
- external communication" or communication outside the organization as a necessary
- part of organizational functioning
- the organization takes in materials and human resources (input), processes
- materials and resources (throughput), and yields a finished product (output)
- into the larger environment
- In the throughput or transforming process, energy is added (synergy) as the inputs
- are "transformed" to outputs
know as nonsummativity or holism
- requisite variety - indicates that the
- internal workings of the system should be as diverse and complicated as the
- environment in which it functions
- Negative feedback loops - are
- cycles of behavior that maintain the status quo--like a thermometer regulates
- Positive feedback loops - are
- cycles of behavior that help systems change--perhaps to a new level of
- bottom line with Systems is survival through adaptation--the way companies
- survive is to keep the blood (information/communication) flowing. Organizations need effective internal and
- external, formal and informal communication systems to adapt to changing
- environments, and to coordinate the efforts of all the "parts" of the
a set of conscious and unconscious beliefs and
values, and the patterns of behavior (including language and symbol use) that
provide identity and form a framework of meaning for a group of people
- Substance -
- These are the meanings
- found in company values and norms
- Form -
- These are
- practices that reflect and communicate the company values and
- Functions of organizational communication (Cultural Perspective)
Teaches the organization’s “language”
Reflects and transmits culture’s values and underlying logics
Purpose of telling a negative story
Effective Knowledge Sharing
Purpose of Positive Story Telling
Crisis Management Strategy
3 Situations require corporate communication response
- 1. Incident
- 2. Emergency
- 3. Crisis
- ◦an occurrence not unexpected, even normal
- in proportion to the public's expectations of what can happen or go wrong at
◦Makes evening/morning news
◦Dip in stock prices
- ◦A major, significant incident which
- requires an immediate and considerable response by the responsible
◦24-48 hour media coverage/updates
◦Damaging financial report
◦Major marine spill
- ◦A negative, unexpected, and overwhelming
- event, revelation, allegation or set of circumstances which threatens the
- integrity, reputation, or survival of an individual or organization.
- ◦Continuous media coverage could go on for
- days or weeks
questions to help communicate effectively during crisis
Who are my stakeholders?
What is my goal?
What is my message?
Who is (are) the messenger (s)?
What do I want stakeholders to do?
- How can our company provide timely
- updates if events change?
Crisis Communication Truths
- Most crisis headlines are gone within a
- few days UNLESS there is no or poor communication
- The actual or potential damage to the
- organization is considerable and the organization cannot, on its own, put an
- immediate end to it.
- Companies can facilitate the rapid
- de-escalation of the crisis through timely and effective communication.
Crisis Communication Mistakes
- Fail to
- have coordinated message
- Present inaccurate information,
- conflicting data, or withhold relevant data (lack of transparency)
- Top people inaccessible
- or appear arrogant, wishy-washy,
- in denial, contentious, unaware
- Managers or
- employees speak (often poorly) and without
- Apologize when not at fault or (worse!)
- lack of contrition when it IS your fault
- Fail to
- prioritize addressing, supporting victims
priorities during a crisis
- Your first response and concern should
- always be the victims—and quickly.
- for contacting people involved
- directly affected (internal and external)
- stakeholders (i.e., employees)
- stakeholders (i.e., clients)
- Tailor messages appropriately to each
- stakeholder group.
Don’t vary key message or tone.
How should you speak in a crisis?
Be humble, helpful, and honest.
Be credible and sincere.
Be accurate and informative.
Stay calm and composed.
◦How it happened.
- ◦What you will do so it won’t happen
- ◦Optional: How you’ll rebound from this
Consumers are twice as likely to purchase, pay
more for, and recommend products and services from a company with a leading vs. failing reputation
- A recent study of reputation
- & brand should be managed together
- consumer emotional component to reputation
- reputations facilitate faster rebound after crisis
DIMENSIONS OF REPUTATION
Quality of products and services
Vision and leadership
Cision (formerly Delahaye) Methodology
DIMENSIONS OF REPUTATION
Products and services
Three stage bridging technique
- Acknowledge – “That is a fair statement
- Or Refute – “Not at all”
- Bridge – “Let’s look at what’s behind this”
- Then drive your message
30 seconds max
- “Left Field” questions do not need to be
“I am not familiar with that issue, but what is important here…”