Chapter 4: Tissue - The Living Fabric

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Chapter 4: Tissue - The Living Fabric
2014-02-04 10:40:17
definitions anatomy physiology
Anatomy & Physiology
definitions of bold and italicized words
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  1. Histology
    study of tissues
  2. Fixed
  3. Sections
  4. Stain
    specimen must be stained to enhance contrast
  5. Artifacts
    preserved tissue we see under the microscope has been exposed to many procedures that later its original condition and introduce minor distortions
  6. Epithelial Tissue; Epithelium (ephithe=laid on, covering)
    • a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity
    • Two forms occur in the body: Covering and lining epithelium, and grandular epithelium
  7. Apical Surface
    an upper free surface exposed to the body exterior or the cavity of an internal organ
  8. Basal Surface
    a lower attached surfaced exposed to the body or cavity of an internal organ
  9. Microvilli
    fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane
  10. Cilia
    tiny hairlike projections
  11. Basal Lamina "sheet"
    thin supporting sheet adjacent to the basal surface of an epithelium
  12. Reticular Lamina
    a layer of extracellular material containing a fine network of collagen proteins fibers that "belongs to" the underlying connective tissue
  13. Basement Membrane
    basal lamina and reticular lamina form the basement membrane, which reinforces the epithelial sheet, helps it resist stretching and tearing, and defines the epithelial boundary
  14. Avascular
    contains no blood vessels
  15. Innervated
    supplied by nerve fibers
  16. Simple epithelia
    consist of a single cell layer - typically found where absorption, secretion, and filtration occur and a thin epithelial barrier is desirable
  17. Stratified Epithelia
    • composed of two or more cell layers stacked on top of each other, are common in high-abrasion areas where protection is important, such as the skin surface and the lining of the mouth
    • named according to the shape of the cells in the apical layer
  18. Squamous cells (squam=scale)
    flattened and scalelike epithelial cells
  19. Cuboidal cells
    epithelial cells that are boxlike (approximately as tall as they are wide)
  20. Columnar cells
    epithelial cells that are tall and column shaped
  21. Simple squamous Epithelium
    cells are flattened laterally, and their cytoplasm is sparse
  22. Endothelium "inner covering"
    single layer of simple squamous cells that line the walls of the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels
  23. Mesothelium "middle covering"
    the epithelium found in serous membranes lining the ventral body cavity and covering its organs
  24. Simple Columnar Epithelium
    single layer of tall, closely packed cells, aligned like soldiers in a row
  25. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
    cells vary in hight
  26. Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    composed of several layers, it is thick and well suited for its protective role in the body - its free surface cells are squamous, and cells of the deeper layers are cuboidal or columnar - its surface cells are constantly being rubbed away and replaced bydivision of its basal cells
  27. Stratified Cuboidal  Epithelium
    typically has two layers of cuboidal cells - rare, mostly found in the ducts of some of the larger glands
  28. Stratified Columnar Epithelium
    Only its apical layer of cells is columnar - limited distribution in the body, occurs  at transition areas or junctions between two other types of epithelia
  29. Transitional Epithelium
    Cells of its basal layer are cuboidal or columnar - forms the lining of hollow urinary organs, which stretch as they fill with urine
  30. Gland
    consists of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product; secretion (aqueous fluid that usually contains proteins, but there is variation)
  31. Endocrine glands
    ductless glands that empty their hormonal products directly into the blood
  32. Hormones
    messenger chemicals that they secrete by exocytosis directly into the extracellular space
  33. Exocrine Glands
    glands that have ducts through which their secretions are carried to a particular site
  34. Unicellular
  35. Mucin
    complex glycoprotein that dissolves in water when secreted - once dissolved, mucin forms, mucus
  36. Goblet Cells
    Individual cells (unicellular glands) that produce mucus
  37. Multicellular Exerocrine Glands
    have two basic parts: epithelium-derived duct and a secretory unit (acinus) consisting of secretory cells
  38. Structural Classification of Multicellular Exocrine Glands
    • simple glands-unbranched duct
    • compound glands-branched duct
    • tubular-secretory cells form tubes
    • alveolar-secretory cells form small, flasklike sacs
    • tubuloalveolar-have both types of secretory units
    • (acinar is used interchangeably with alveolar)
  39. Merocrine Glands
    • secrete their products by exocytosis as they are products
    • "merely secrete"
  40. Holocrine Glands (holo=whole, all)
    accumulate their products within them until they rupture
  41. Apocrine Glands (apo=from, off)
    like holocrine glands, accumulate their products, but in this case only just beneath the free surface
  42. Connective tissue
    primary tissue - form and function very extensively - functions include support, storage, and protection
  43. 4 classes of Connective tissue
    • Connective Tissue Proper
    • Cartilage
    • Bone
    • Blood
  44. Major Functions of Connective Tissue
    • Binding and Supporting
    • Protecting
    • Insulating
    • Storing Reserve Fuel
    • Transporting  Substances
  45. Common Characteristics of Connective Tissue
    • All connective tissue arise from mesenchyme
    • Degrees of Vascularity
    • Extracellular matrix
  46. Ground Substance
    unstructured material that fills the space between the cells and contains fibers - composed of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins, and proteoglycans
  47. 3 types of fibers found in Connective Tissue Matrix
    • Collagen Fibers
    • Elastic Fibers
    • Reticular Fibers
  48. primary blast cell types by Connective Tissue class
    • Connective Tissue Proper: fibroblast
    • Cartilage: chondroblast
    • Bone: osteoblast
  49. Hemotopoietic Stem Cell
    bone marrow cell that gives rise to all the formed elements of blood; hemocytoblast
  50. Fat Cells
    store nutrients
  51. White Blood Cells
    cell types that are concerned with tissue response to injury
  52. Mast Cells (mast=stuffed full of granules)
    detect foreign microorganisms and initiate local inflammatory responses against them - oval cells that typically cluster along blood vessels
  53. Macrophages (macro=large)(phago=eat)
    large, irregularly shaped cells that avidly phagocytize a broad variety of foreign materials, ranging from foreign molecules to entire bacteria to dust particles - also dispose of dead tissue cells and are central actors in the immune system
  54. Mesenchyme
    Common embryonic tissue from which all connective tissues arise
  55. Connective tissue proper
    (two subclasses)
    • loose connective tissues (areolar, adipose, reticular)
    • dense connective tissue (dense regular, dense irregular, elastic) often called fibrous connective tissues
  56. Areolar
    • supporting and binding other tissues (the job of the fibers)
    • holding body fluids (the ground substance's role)
    • defending against infection (via the activity of white blood cells and macrophages)
    • storing nutrients as fat (in fat cells)
  57. Edema
    a body region is inflamed, the areolar tissue in the area soaks up excess fluids like a sponge, and the affected area swells and becomes puffy
  58. Adipose tissue (fat)
    • areolar connective tissue modified to store nutrients;  a connective tissue consisting chiefly of fat cells
    • Somtimes called white fat
  59. Adipocytes
    Fat cells
  60. Brown Fat (Brown Adipose tissue)
    adipose tissue that contains abundant mitochondria, which use the lipid fuels to heat the bloodstream to warm the body
  61. Reticular Connective Tissue
    connective tissue with a fine network of reticular fibers that form the internal supporting framework of lymphoid organs
  62. Stroma "bed" or "mattress"
    the basic internal structural framework of an organ
  63. Dense regular connective tissue
    contains closely packed bundles of collagen fibers running in the same direction, parallel to the direction of pull
  64. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
    same structural elements of regular connective tissue, but the bundles of collagen fibers are much thinker and are arranged irregularly; they run in more than one plane
  65. Elastic Connective Tissue
    dense regular connective tissue that connect adjacent vertebrae
  66. Cartilage
    white, semiopaque connective tissue - stands up to both tension and compression - qualities between dense connective tissue and bone
  67. chondroblast
    actively mitotic cell of cartilage
  68. chondrocytes
    mature cell of cartilage
  69. Hyaline cartilage
    gristle - the most abundant cartilage type in the body; provides firm suport with some pliability
  70. Elastic Cartilage
    cartilage with abundant elastic fibers; more flexible than hyaline cartilage
  71. Fibrocartilage
    the most compressible type ofr cartilage; resistant to stretch - forms vertebral discs and knee joint cartilages
  72. Bone; Osseous Tissue
    a connective tissue that forms the bony skeleton
  73. Osteocytes
    mature bone cells
  74. Blood
    fluid within blood vessels
  75. Muscle Tissues
    highly cellular, well-vascularized tissues that are responsible for most types of body movement
  76. Myofilaments
    fileament that constitutes myofibrils - of two types: actin and myosin
  77. Skeletal Muscle
    system of protection and support composed primarily of bone and cartilage - voluntary muscle
  78. Muscle fibers
    a muscle cell
  79. Cardiac Muscle
    specialized muscle of the heart - involuntary muscle
  80. Intercalated Discs
    specialized connections between myocardial cells containing gap junctions and desmosomes
  81. Smooth Muscle
    spindle-shaped cells with one centrally located nucleus and no externally visible striations (bands) - found mainly in the walls of hollow organs - involuntary muscle
  82. Neurons
    nerve cell - cell of the nervous sy7stem specialized to generate and transmit electrical signals
  83. Cutaneous
    pertaining to the skin
  84. Mucous Membranes; Mucosae
    membranes that form the linings of body cavities open to the exterior
  85. Lamina
    a thin layer or flat plate - the portion of a vertebra between the transverse process and the spinous process
  86. Serosa; Serous Membrane
    the moist membrane found in closed ventral body cavities
  87. Pleurae
    two layers of serous membrane that line the thoracic cavity and cover the external surface of the lung
  88. Pericardium
    double-layered sac enclosing the heart and forming its superficial layer; has fibrous and serous layers
  89. Peritoneum
    serous membrane lining the interior of the abdominal cavity and covering the surfaces of abdominal organs
  90. Regeneration
    replacement of destroyed tissue with the same kind of tissue
  91. Fibrosis
    proliferation of fibrous connective tissue called scar tissue
  92. Ectoderm
    embryonic germ layer; forms the epidermis of the skin and its derivatives, and nervous tissues
  93. Mesoderm
    primary germ layer that forms the skeleton and muscles of the body
  94. Endoderm
    embryonic germ layer; forms the lining of the digestive tube and its associated structures