Represented by changes in height, weight, vital signs
Assessed by growth charts
what is development how is it assessed?
Increase in capacity or function
Roll over, sit, “cruise”, walk, run, climb stairs
Timing will vary, but sequence is uniform
Assessed by Denver Developmental screening or other test
occurs from head down
In normal cephalocaudal growth, the child gains control of the head and neck before the trunk and limbs.
occurs from the center of the body out
In normal proximodistal growth, the child controls arm movements before hand movements. For example, the child reaches for objects before being able to grasp them. Children gain control of their hands before their fingers; that is, they can hold things with the entire hand before they can pick
something up with just their fingers.
Psychoanalytic approach; looks at sexual energy and ways people learn to controlimpulses
psychosocial approach looks at 8 stages throughout lifespan that each have crisis
cognitive theorist looks at intellectual development – how children learn as they grow
examined children’s moral development as they develop, based on Piaget’s stages;
Freud on infants, toddlers, preschool, school age, adolescent
Infant:( birth - 1 yr)
oral - pleasure derives from mouth
give pacifier when npo. give bottle, pacifer, breast feed after painful procedure
toddlers: ( 1-3 yrs)
anal - learns control over body functions.
continue normal elimination, no potty training during illness
Preschool: ( 3-6 yrs)
Phallic- focuses on genitalia and differences between girls and boys.
by the end of this stage they identify w/ parent of the same sex
Latency- quieter sexual stage, privacy and understanding body
explain pprocedures give gowns, covers, knock before entering room
Genital- growth into sexual maturity, relationships
explain procedures, sex ed.
Piaget on infants, toddlers, preschool,school age, and adolescents