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what is growth? how is it assessed?
Increase in physical size
Represented by changes in height, weight, vital signs
Assessed by growth charts
what is development how is it assessed?
Increase in capacity or function
Roll over, sit, “cruise”, walk, run, climb stairs
Timing will vary, but sequence is uniform
Assessed by Denver Developmental screening or other test
- occurs from head down
- In normal cephalocaudal growth, the child gains control of the head and neck before the trunk and limbs.
occurs from the center of the body out
- In normal proximodistal growth, the child controls arm movements before hand movements. For example, the child reaches for objects before being able to grasp them. Children gain control of their hands before their fingers; that is, they can hold things with the entire hand before they can pick
- something up with just their fingers.
Psychoanalytic approach; looks at sexual energy and ways people learn to control impulses
psychosocial approach looks at 8 stages throughout lifespan that each have crisis
cognitive theorist looks at intellectual development – how children learn as they grow
- examined children’s moral development as they develop, based on Piaget’s stages;
- culturally insensitive??
Freud on infants, toddlers, preschool, school age, adolescent
- Infant:( birth - 1 yr)
- oral - pleasure derives from mouth
- give pacifier when npo. give bottle, pacifer, breast feed after painful procedure
- toddlers: ( 1-3 yrs)
- anal - learns control over body functions.
- continue normal elimination, no potty training during illness
- Preschool: ( 3-6 yrs)
- Phallic- focuses on genitalia and differences between girls and boys.
- by the end of this stage they identify w/ parent of the same sex
- school-aged: (6-12)
- Latency- quieter sexual stage, privacy and understanding body
- explain pprocedures give gowns, covers, knock before entering room
- Adolescents: (12-18)
- Genital- growth into sexual maturity, relationships
- explain procedures, sex ed.
Piaget on infants, toddlers, preschool,school age, and adolescents
- Infant: ( birth - 1 yr)
- sensorimotor: ( 6 substages). object permanence & stranger anxiety
- learns from movement and sensory input, crib mobiles, toys, wall mural, bright colors.
- Toddlers: ( 1-3 yrs)
- Pre-operational - egocentrism, transductive reasoning, magical thinking.
- give simple explainations. ensure safe surroundings because they are curiousPreschoolers ( 3-6 yrs)
- Pre- conceptual: egocentism, transductive reasoning, magical thinking.
- ^ verbally, feel responsible for causing illness. Offer explainationsSchool-aged ( 6-12)
- Concrete operations: accurate understanding of cause and effect, can follow rules, can see another point of view.
- mature thought when they see and manipulate objects, give clear instructions and detailAdolescents (12-18)
- Formal operations: ability to think abstractly, can reason and consider outcomes
Erikson on infants, toddlers, preschoolers, school age, adolescent
- Infants ( birth - 1yr)
- Trust VS mistrust: trust depends on if basic needs are met, hold baby often, comfort, food, hygeine, parents in room, pain meds etc.Toddlers ( 1-3 yrs)
- autonomy vs shame and doubt: the need to be independent
- preschoolers (3-6)
- Initiative VS guilt: initiate play.
- playtime, offer equipments to V anxietySchool-aged (6-12)
- Industry VS inferiority: self worth from activities.
- school work, past times, adjust to limitationsAdolescents ( 12-18)Identity vs role confusion: independent from parents & relying on peers.
- sex ed, body image, peer relationships