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  1. what 4 substances are proteins composed of?



  2. What 3 parts does a amino acid contain?
    -side chain

    -amine group

    -acid group
  3. How many amino acids are there in total?
  4. what are essential amino acids?
    come from diet
  5. How many amino acids are essential?
    come from diet
  6. how amino acids are nonessential?
  7. which 2 amino acids are conditionally essential ?

  8. Description of high quality protein (4)
    -complete protein

    -contains extra amino acids for protein synthesis

    -good digestibility

    -usually from animal derived foods
  9. description of low quality protein (3)
    -incomplete protein

    -one or more limiting amino acids

    -usually derived from plant foods
  10. What is deamination?
    the amino group is removed from an amino acid and converted to ammonia
  11. Transamination
    nitrogen from one amino acid is used to make another amino acid
  12. When does deamination occur?
    once all the protein needs are met, then the remaining of the amino acids will be subjected to deamination
  13. What are deaminated carbon chains called?
    alpha-keto acids
  14. what 4 things can alpha-keto acids do?
    -make glucose

    -stored as fat

    -make new amino acids

    -oxidized for energy
  15. what are the 4 steps of metabolism of protein?
    -protein from food is broken down into amino acids

    -amino acids transported from small intestines to liver

    -liver regulates release of amino acids into the free amino acid pool

    -used for energy or made into new body tissues
  16. What is nitrogen balance?
    measures protein turnover and helps to determine protein needs and status
  17. what are the 4 functions of proteins?
    -tissue building

    -cell functioning

    -body functioning

    -energy source
  18. (protein functions) cell functioning:
  19. (protein functions) Body functioning (5)
    • -hormones
    • *hormones are made up of proteins

    • -immune function
    • *antibodies are made up of proteins

    • -fluid balance
    • *albumin can prevent edema

    -acid/base regulation

    • -blood transport proteins
    • *hemoglobin/transferrin
  20. 7 Factors that influence protein requirements
    -total energy intake

    -desire to lose or gain weight

    -carb availability

    -exercise duration/intensity

    -training status/fitness level

    -dietary protein quality

  21. factors that influence protein requirements) total energy intake
    the more one eats, the more space they have to eat more protein
  22. factors that influence protein requirements) desire to lose or gain weight (2)
    -when losing weight, one should increase their protein

    -when gaining, one should keep protein the same only increase calories
  23. factors that influence protein requirements) exercise intensity and duration (2)
    -if one is an endurance person, then they should focus more on carbs

    -if one is a strength trainer, then they have to increase their protein needs
  24. factors that influence protein requirements) Training status/fitness level
    a noob will require more protein intake than a seasoned vet
  25. factors that influence protein requirements) Age
    older people require less protein
  26. is the contribution of amino acids to total energy expenditure, high or low?
  27. in what 3 ways can amino acids contribute to energy production during and after exercise?
    -substrates for gluconeogenesis 

    • -oxidized directly in the muscles for energy
    • *BCAAs

    -build and repair tissues
  28. Is there an increase or decrease in amino acid oxidation with increasing exercise intensity and duration? and why?
    • increasing linearly most likely due to increase in the enzyme involved with oxidizing the BCAAs
    • *oxoacid dehydrogenase
  29. Is there an increase of amino acid oxidation at intensity less than 55-60%?
    no increase
Card Set:
2014-01-29 22:19:30
Sports Nut

Protein and performance
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