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what 4 substances are proteins composed of?
What 3 parts does a amino acid contain?
How many amino acids are there in total?
what are essential amino acids?
come from diet
How many amino acids are essential?
come from diet
how amino acids are nonessential?
which 2 amino acids are conditionally essential ?
Description of high quality protein (4)
-contains extra amino acids for protein synthesis
-usually from animal derived foods
description of low quality protein (3)
-one or more limiting amino acids
-usually derived from plant foods
What is deamination?
the amino group is removed from an amino acid and converted to ammonia
nitrogen from one amino acid is used to make another amino acid
When does deamination occur?
once all the protein needs are met, then the remaining of the amino acids will be subjected to deamination
What are deaminated carbon chains called?
what 4 things can alpha-keto acids do?
-stored as fat
-make new amino acids
-oxidized for energy
what are the 4 steps of metabolism of protein?
-protein from food is broken down into amino acids
-amino acids transported from small intestines to liver
-liver regulates release of amino acids into the free amino acid pool
-used for energy or made into new body tissues
What is nitrogen balance?
measures protein turnover and helps to determine protein needs and status
what are the 4 functions of proteins?
(protein functions) cell functioning:
(protein functions) Body functioning (5)
- *hormones are made up of proteins
- -immune function
- *antibodies are made up of proteins
- -fluid balance
- *albumin can prevent edema
- -blood transport proteins
7 Factors that influence protein requirements
-total energy intake
-desire to lose or gain weight
-training status/fitness level
-dietary protein quality
factors that influence protein requirements) total energy intake
the more one eats, the more space they have to eat more protein
factors that influence protein requirements) desire to lose or gain weight (2)
-when losing weight, one should increase their protein
-when gaining, one should keep protein the same only increase calories
factors that influence protein requirements) exercise intensity and duration (2)
-if one is an endurance person, then they should focus more on carbs
-if one is a strength trainer, then they have to increase their protein needs
factors that influence protein requirements) Training status/fitness level
a noob will require more protein intake than a seasoned vet
factors that influence protein requirements) Age
older people require less protein
is the contribution of amino acids to total energy expenditure, high or low?
in what 3 ways can amino acids contribute to energy production during and after exercise?
-substrates for gluconeogenesis
- -oxidized directly in the muscles for energy
-build and repair tissues
Is there an increase or decrease in amino acid oxidation with increasing exercise intensity and duration? and why?
- increasing linearly most likely due to increase in the enzyme involved with oxidizing the BCAAs
- *oxoacid dehydrogenase
Is there an increase of amino acid oxidation at intensity less than 55-60%?
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