Archaeological terms

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Author:
akatherine
ID:
259149
Filename:
Archaeological terms
Updated:
2014-03-29 15:29:27
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geography archaeology
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Description:
geographic & geological terms referenced in archaeology
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  1. Karstic
    an area of limestone terrane characterized by sinks, ravines, and underground streams.
  2. Horst
    a ridge of land that has been forced upwards between two parallel faults
  3. Graben
    a portion of the earth's crust, bounded on at least two sides by faults, that has dropped downward in relation to adjacent portions.
  4. Scarp
    a line of cliffs formed by the faulting or fracturing of the earth's crust; an escarpment.
  5. Clayey
    covered or smeared with clay.
  6. Arroyo
    a small steep-sided watercourse or gulch with a nearly flat floor; usually dry except after heavy rains.
  7. Littoral
    of or pertaining to the shore of a lake, sea, or ocean.
  8. Histic
    muck and peat
  9. gyttja
    unconsolidated mineral and organic sediment
  10. aguada
    • seasonally inundated depression
    • rain-fed natural basin
  11. alluviation
    the phenomenon of sediment or gravel accumulating
  12. colluvium
    a mixture of rock fragments from the bases of cliffs
  13. sepulchral
    of or pertaining to burial
  14. cenotaph
    a sepulchral monument erected in memory of a deceased person whose body is buried elsewhere.
  15. chultun
    cavities (in bedrock)
  16. interment
    burial, esp with ceremonial rites
  17. laminae
    a layer of sediment or sedimentary rock only a small fraction of an inch (less than a centimeter) in thickness.
  18. terrigenous
    noting or pertaining to sediments on the sea bottom derived directly from the neighboring land, or to the rocks formed primarily by the consolidation of such sediments
  19. anoxic
    an abnormally low amount of oxygen in the body tissues
  20. benthic
    • the animals and plants living at the bottom of a sea or lake
    • of or pertaining to a benthon
  21. varve
    (in lake sediments) an annual deposit usually consisting of two layers, one of fine materials and the other of coarse
  22. detrital
    • rock in small particles or other material worn or broken away from a mass, as by the action of water or glacial ice
    • any disintegrated material; debris
  23. Speleothem
    commonly known as a cave formation, is a secondary mineral deposit formed in a cave. Speleothems are typically formed in limestone or dolostone solutional caves.
  24. Stalactites
    are pointed pendants hanging from the cave ceiling, from which they grow
  25. Stalagmites
    are the "ground-up" counterparts of stalactites, often blunt mounds
  26. bajo
    low-lying seasonal swamp
  27. alluvium
    • a deposit of sand, mud, etc., formed by flowing water
    • the sedimentary matter deposited thus within recent times, especially in the valleys of large rivers
  28. diachronic
    of or pertaining to the changes in a linguistic system between successive points in time; historical
  29. coprolite
    Fossilized excrement; a fossil consisting of animal fecal matter
  30. amalgam
    • a rare mineral, an alloy of silver and mercury, occurring as silver-white crystals or grains
    • a blend or combination
  31. Olla
  32. tephra
    clastic volcanic material, as scoria, dust, etc., ejected during an eruption.
  33. hinterland
    the land lying behind a coastal region
  34. accretionary
    an increase by natural growth or by gradual external addition; growth in size or extent.

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