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Define the problem of non-fitness?
a) How do we account for physical or behaviour characteristics
that appear to be detrimental to survival?
b) How do
we account for organisms that do not survive for very long?
c) How do
we account for the extinction of species?
d) How do
we account for illness and disease?
a) How do we account for physical or behaviour characteristics that appear to be detrimental to survival?
In evolutionary theory what is the difference between process accounts and
Process: Explains WHY some change occur and Mechanistic HOW it occurs
The French thinker and scientist Jean-Baptiste
Lamarck’s theory of evolution proposed change comes about via a process of . .
Inheritance of acquired characteristics.
The ‘Law of Segregation’ states that . . .
Sexually reproducing species transmit ONE of TWO set of instructions (genes) for a particular trait
The ‘Law of Dominance’
states that . . . .
a) For any given pair of instructions both will be expressed if both are dominant.
b) For any given pair of instructions neither will be expressed if both are recessive.
c) Dominant genes are fitter than recessive genes.
d) For any given pair of discrete instructions only one will be expressed.
d) For any given pair of discrete instructions only one will be expressed.
What is the driving force in evolution?
Group selection refers to the idea that . . .
Member of the GROUP Act of GOOD FOR THE SPECIES
Kin selection argues that natural selection works at the level of . . .
a) The gene.
b) The family.
c) The individual.
d) The chromosome.
a) The Gene. Due to the SELFISH GENE is behind any altruistic behavior, which results in inclusive fitness
Darwinian thought have long influenced social sciences. In which order have the following developed?
ETHOLOGY, EVOL. PSY., INSTINCT THEORY, SOCIOBIOLOGY
Instinct theory; Ethology; Sociobiology; Evol. Psy
"Human behaviour is organised by a strategy to optimise inclusive fitness." is the assumption of...?
Evolutionary psychology has another term; Which?
The Adapted Mind Approach
The EEA typically refers to the time period
spanning approximately . . .
1.8MILL-10.000 YEARS ago
Define The Out of Africa hypothesis
- The claim that all modern humans descend from a
- common single population of hominids is known as OUT OF AFRICA HYPOTHESIS
Were Homo Habitus carnivores or Herbivores?
The developmental event which leads to the
formation of the human central nervous system is known as . . .
INDUCTION of the NEURAL TUBE
In cell biology, XXXX (from the Latin plurimus, meaning very many, and potens, meaning having power) refers to a stem cell that has the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers:
TRAGEDY of the COMMONS
refers to the claim that with regard to the
consumption of common resources . . .
- In an ecological context, the term ‘tragedy of
- the commons’ refers to the claim that with regard to the consumption of common
- resources . . .
The study of interactions wherein different strategies are pitted against one another with a view to finding out which of them is best.
Bipolar depression is both reducing fitness and should probably be weeded out through natural selection. How could it possibly be explained that people suffer from this?
- a. Not weeded out YET; Hasen't been there long enough
- b. Hidden benefit which increase inclusive fitness (so far unknown)
Why does Steven Pinker think ART and MUSIC are indirectly adaptive?
They are side-effects of a. Language and b. Habitat selection
Does evolutionary psychology say that genes would CAUSE violent behaviour in men?
NO but it would PREDISPOSE men to this, due to pressures, e.g. intrasexual selection
Survival of the fittest is also another term for...
- Natural selection
- - Since individuals that survive to reproductiveage are generally viewed as being physically fitter than those which
A woman conceives 3 children during her lifetime. What is her fitness?
Her fitness is 3, as Fitness is a measure of the reproductive success of an individual during its lifetime.
Mendel found the missing link (Mechanism) to Natural Selection which Darwin only "half-discovered"
When an organism has two similar copies of a gene (such asYY or yy), it is said to be
The blending model of inheritance that Darwin believed may be selected for was later discovered to be incorrect by (WHO) and what is it said to be, instead...?
Mendel, Inheritance is PARTICULAR, i.e. Gamete carry a recessive or dominant gene which later determine if the pair will be homozygous or heterozygous and thus the phenotype.
How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have? Are these homologous or heterologous and why?
23 pairs; These are Pairs cause they are the same TYPE of gene, one from each parent. Thus Homologous pairs.
What are Autosomal chromosomes?
All 22 chromosomes which are NOT the 23rd pair of sex chromosomes in a cell
Generally a locus is home to more than one alternate form of a gene;when this occurs the alternate forms are called ...
This exchange of genes is known as crossing-over. In this way genes become recombined and the genes that are passed on to offspring are said to have undergone ...
What is another word for the resulting combination occurring during the "crossing-over"?
This exchange of genes is known as crossing-over. In this way genes become recombined and the genes that are passed on to offspring are said to have undergone ... Recombination
AKA Chromosome Mutation
What does a Modifier gene do?
Alternates the WAY that a certain genotype is expressed as phenotype
It is easier to increase the SIZE of eggs rather than the NUMBER of eggs produced by hens. Explain this in relation to heritability
There is more GENETIC VARIABILITY "available to fuck around with artificially" available for egg size than number of eggs. So the HERITABILITY IS HIGHER FOR EGG SIZE.
Identical twins AKA...?
MONO-ZYGOTIC twins (One Egg fertilized)... Share 100% of genes!
Describe Gene Flow?
E.g. A new species moves into a new environment and the change in this species' genes may change quite rapidly, and the flow of genes into the new environment is termed Gene Flow...
How are the Founder effect related to the Genetic drift?
Genetic drift... CHANCE trait, not selection FOR or AGAINST... i.e. have no effect in current environment. Then some part of the population, e.g. Rodents, move on to a new island. This Genetic Drift may have a huge effect suddenly... Called the FOUNDER effect
Vero Wynne-Edwards published a book entitledAnimal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behaviour. It was destined to beone of the most cited texts on evolution published in the twentieth century.But unlike Darwin’s opus a century before, Wynne-Edwards’s book becamefamous for being wrong.
What did he propose, which is INCORRECT?
Natural selection at GROUP LEVEL, e.g. survival of species, helping others (altruism) is driving Natural Selection, but this is not true. Selfish gene/gene selection correct.
Hamilton called the proportion of genes shared between two family membersthe coefficient of relatedness or ‘r’. What is the scale this is measured on, what what proportion does a sister share with a brother?
- Measured on scale 0-1, so since 50% of genes are shared on average, r=0.5.
- Grandchildren thus have r of 0.25.
INCLUSIVE Fitness is the Sum of ...?
Direct and Indirect fitness
CULTURE Can be studied like an epidemiology
spreading across minds. Who introduced this idea?
- SperberThe fact that ideas spread through a population unaltered
- is not because of high-fidelity copying, but because humans have similar brains.
- They thus select similar characteristics to represent their ideas, and it is
- these that spread.
Dawkins say what about culture?
Culture does not benefit us, but it benefits itself: Its own retransmission. We can explain culture more through our biological makeup than our genes
What is one major difference between GENES and MEMES?
Genes are random whereas Memes tend to be chosen for/against consciously by humans
The base of a meme is...According to Dawkins
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
Instructional learning opens up the possibility of what type of learning? ("we can go forward at the same time as teaching someone else")
Knowledge of a previous topic is not essential but helpful to learn a new topic.
THIS type of Transfer implies that Knowledge of a previous topic is essential to acquire new knowledge.
Humans are good at X. It is especially important in children's development, where it is internalized. It is also an essential component in the development of culture
The tendency of an animal to pay attention to an object or area as a result of seeing some other animal achieves some success
with that object or in that area.
Culture and biology are co-dependent. Humans have innate learning capacities that predispose them to learn certain things easily. This makes some cultural elements easier to learn than others with
the result that they are more likely to become established in the culture.
What is the term for this?
- The interaction between genes and the environment that occurs during
- development. Epigenetic rules embody certain biological imperatives, and these
- rules influence the set of cultural entities that are likely to exist. Because
- these rules are shaped by genes, Lumsden and Wilson suggest that genes
- indirectly influence culture.
Why do Lumsden and Wilson suggest that genes indirectly influence culture?
Because the RULES that make up culture are INFLUENCED BY GENES.
Patterns of cultures that are transmitted
between individual. These serve to increase the inclusive fitness of those
humans who acquire the particular aspects of a culture. Examle: Food
consumption and taboos
What does Culture "compensate" for in regards to human biological evolution
The PHYLOGENY - Biological evolution is slow, and culture makes the evolution faster.
In humans, the mind is produced by two interacting modes of inheritance:
What are these 2, and what is the theory called?
- Culture, Genes
- "Dual Inheritance and the Evolution of Culture"
Brains are costly in a biological sense (e.g. metabolically), but they make up for their existence because ___ is slow and brains are needed for the foundation of ___?
- Because environment changes slowly.
- Our brains are needed as they are the foundations for culture (The Transfer of knowledge)
imitation, modeling and idea diffusion are examples of what kind of Culture, according to Tooby and Cosmides?
Transmitted culture (in our minds, not innate)
TOOBY & COSMIDES coined the term ________ to describe how cultural practices might arise as a result of mental modules that are environmentally contingent.
This type of knowledge and interpretations are those existing within a culture, that are ‘determined by local custom, meaning, and belief’ and best described by a 'native' of the culture. These are social constructivists, open-ended, prone-to-bias, "The _____ approach investigates how local people think" How they perceive and categorize the world, their rules for behavior, what has meaning for them, and how they imagine and explain things. It is frequently used by Anthropologists.
"The _______ (scientist-oriented) knowledge approach shifts the focus from local observations, categories, explanations, and interpretations to those of the anthropologist. The ______ approach realizes that members of a culture often are too involved in what they are doing to interpret their cultures impartially.
Donald Brown was an Anthropologist who noted what in regards to ... What?
That there seem to be Universials of Culture, e.g. burial, gender roles, incest taboos.
How did FRANK BOAS explain behaviour in relation to culture?
This is also known as the _______ theory of culture.
- There is no specific psychological difference between people, but rather, culture is needed to understand the variation in behaviour.
- AKA SUPERORGANIC Theory of culture
What has Culture
provided us with that has greatly improved our ability to manipulate the environment to suit our needs?
Evolutionary theory usually use ______ explanations in regards to culture.
This is because Culture is thought to have increased our______
Usually use ultimate levels of explanations; There is evidence that a certain type of brain is required for culture. This is because Culture is thought to have been advantageous for us in terms of INCLUSIVE FITNESS.
How large is the proportion of intelligence and thought to be accounted for by heritability?
0.5, or 50% determined by genes.
Evolutionary psychologists suggest that culture is partly cause of our genetics, however, there seems to be a great variability among cultures. How could this be explained as advantageous?
Variability is essentially adaptability to the environment, which is essential if the environment changes fast.
Why is it that there is no optimal human, and that individual differences are not necessarily selected against, with regards to ecology and culture?
Culture and variability has helped us survive in many different ecological environments, thus, there may not be an optimal human; it depends on the place you grow up.
How large proportion of Personality is Heritable?
Around 0.3-0.5 (30% - 50%)
How are personality and fitness interrelated?
Since personality in part determines behaviour, this pre-disposes us to adapt our behaviour in order to maximize fitness
Variation is adaptive due to 2 specifics in regards to culture, namely?
Environment and the behaviour of others
Serial killers or psychopathy could be due to Epiphenomenon. Explain
Epiphenomenon is "a secondary phenomenon that occurs alongside or in parallel to a primary phenomenon", in this example, it could be sexual combination and mutation that may aid the creation of such apparently detrimental characteristics
The non Heritable Component
The role of learning: humans are equally capable of learning, but content is
different due to social learning. The environmental influence is a key part of A. Phylogenesis
Intelligence is traditionally defined as...
Ability to adapt to environment
Describe Phenotype switching, and give an example.
- E.g. Trait for being exceptionally good at manipulating others; phenotype switching: change from Abusive fraudster to Helpful Therapist.
- Note: Phenotype Switching is HARD but possible.
Sternberg spoke about what type of intelligence that IQ-tests generally do not measure?
Why is intelligence today not necessarily useful during the EEA
- Today the focus is on math, general knowledge, language etc.
- During EEA it was more about survival.
- Intelligence is contingent on culture and environment
Cultural terms of "being smart" may make a huge difference. A basic level of smartness may not be sufficient.
spoke about what in regards to Intelligence?
'G' GENERAL INTELLIGENCE as well as MULTIPLE intelligences.
Adaptive niche filling says what about leaders?
That due to variation, and variation being adaptive, anyone could become a leader.
In what way could anxiety prove to be advantageous from an evolutionary perspective?
Predisposition us to be extraordinary cautious...
Depression; Could be the "Epiphenomena" of what, and Why?
Epiphenomena of happiness "The flip side coin" because it provides us with MOTIVATION to do things.
How could depression be advantageous with reference to social competition theory?
Makes people yielding rather than fighting and exploitive
Schizophrenia does not seem to have an apparent advantage in an evolutionary perspective, but could possibly provide what?
"A visionary leadership"
Paranoia is subject to normal distribution
There is evidence that Social competition can lead to what mental disorder in animals?
Because there is always a normal distribution of genes, what does this tell us about psychopathology?
There is always a normal distribution of genes so there are always mutations.
What does evolutionary psychology say about pathology in general?
Symptoms may be adaptive and could increase inclusive fitness as it may protect us and compromise rather than only destroy us. They could also have been created due to novel environment
With regards to emotions, why do people seek out short cuts that does not provide a long-term actual beneficial result?
Because people seek positive emotional outcomes; people are guided by their emotions
Personality construct characterized by the sub-clinical inability to identify and describe emotions in the self. The core characteristics of alexithymia are marked dysfunction in emotional awareness, social attachment, and interpersonal relating. Furthermore, individuals suffering from alexithymia also have difficulty in distinguishing and appreciating the emotions of others, which is thought to lead to unempathic and ineffective emotional responding
Difference between Alexythimia and Psychopathology?
Theory of mind in regards to emotions is affected in psychopathology whereas in Alexythimia people are not "aware" of their own emotions.
Emotions involve 3 parts, which?
Physiological, Cognitive and Behavioural reactions to external and internal events
Nesse says that emotions are shaped by_____ because this provides_____?
Natural selection; provides an increased capacity to psychologically and physiologically respond to situations, to respond both to opportunities and threats
Emotions increases MOTIVATION and thus maximises FITNESS
Ekman and Freisen crushed the Cultural Relativity theory in regards to what?
Emotions; these are universial and exists across the human race, surprise, anger, sadness, disgust, fear, happiness
Scientists study the brain with fMRI in regards to emotions. Which 2 parts do they study and why?
Amygdala and Orbital Frontal Cortex (Decision making) to determine whether emotions trigger activity or activity trigger emotions...
Except for the brain, which 2 systems affect emotions (and essentially everything else in humans?)
Endocrine system and Nervous system (Neurotransmitters)
Why are NEGATIVE EMOTIONS "stronger" (i.e. under more evolutionary pressure) than Positive emotions ?
They guide us away from threats, aversive situations. There might not have been a second chance.
Negative emotions usually affect a person's focus how?
Narrowing the focus, so not that easily distracted from other things
Positive emotions promote knowledge in 2 ways?
Through Playfulness and Interest (emotion)
Positive emotions are more differentiated than Negative emotions, and they narrow people's focus (enhance focus).
FALSE. They are Less differentiated than negative emotions and tend to widen people's attention "Playfulness" rather than "Threat"
Are emotions the same for everyone?
Obviously not. Some enjoy pain, some hate it. S/M sex etc.