Pharmacology - Macrolides 2

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Author:
kyleannkelsey
ID:
259168
Filename:
Pharmacology - Macrolides 2
Updated:
2014-01-29 20:52:21
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Pharmacology Macrolides
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Pharmacology - Macrolides 2
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Pharmacology - Macrolides 2
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  1. Is clarithromycin useful for respiratory infections, why or why not?
    Yes, because it enters the lung well
  2. Is clarithromycin useful for middle ear infections, why or why not?
    Yes, because it accumulates in the ear at high concentrations
  3. What is the spectrum of action for clarithromycin?
    Mycobacterium avum, Helicobacter pylori, protozoas, toxoplasma gondii, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Legionella pneumophilla and erythromycin-senstive strep/staphylococci
  4. What type of patient would you need to use clarithromycin prophylactically in to prevent Mycobacterium avum?
    Immunocomprimised/AIDs patients
  5. Where is toxoplasma gondii found?
    Protozoa found in cat feces
  6. Can Clarithromycin be a substitute for Pen G?
    Yes
  7. Why does Erythromycin cause GI upset?
    Because it stimulates Motilin receptors
  8. Why does Clarithromycin not cause as much stomach upset as Erythromycin?
    Because it does not stimulate Motilin receptors
  9. Why does Clarithromycin not cause as many DDIs as Erythromycin?
    Les interaction with CYP450 enzymes
  10. What are the main indications for Clarithromycin?
    Helicobacter pylori caused stomach ulcers, and Mycobacterium avum/toxoplasma gondii encephelitis in AIDS patients
  11. What are the adverse effects of Clarithromycin?
    Prolonged QT interval, hepatotoxicity (rare)
  12. What is the half-life of azithromycin?
    2 to 3 days
  13. What foods interfere with azithromycin absorption?
    None
  14. How do the DDIs of azithromycin compare to Clarithro/Erythromycin?
    Many fewer DDIs
  15. How does the spectrum of azithromycin compare to Clarithromycin?
    Azithro is less active against Streptococci and more effective against H. influenza
  16. Why does azithromycin have such a long half-life?
    It is deposited into the tissues and slowly released into the blood stream
  17. Is azithromycin absorbed rapidly or slowly?
    Rapidly
  18. What type of drug is Telithromycin?
    A Ketolide
  19. What is the MOA for Telithromycin?
    Protein synthsis inhibitor similar to macrolides
  20. Is Telithromycin well absorbed orally?
    Yes
  21. What is the half-life of telithromycin?
    10 hours
  22. How would you describe the metabolism f Telithromcyin?
    Highly metabolized
  23. What are the DDIs for telithromycin?
    Statin drug toxicity and others that are mostly based on inhibition of liver metabolism
  24. What are the adverse effect of Telithromycin?
    Diarrhea, nausea, vision problems, muscle weakness in myasthenia gravis patients
  25. What is the indication for Telithromycin?
    Bacterial respiratory infections (community acquired pneumonia), pneumococci resistant to macrolides
  26. What type of drug is Fidaxomicin?
    Macrolide
  27. Is Fidaxomicin broad or narrow spectrum?
    Narrow/very selective
  28. What is the MOA of Fidaxomicin?
    Protein synthesis inhibitor: inhibits transcription and RNA production, works on the RNS polymerase
  29. The spectrum of Fidaxomicin overlaps with what other drugs?
    Vancomycin and Metronidazole
  30. What is Fidaxomicin used for?
    C. diff
  31. Why is Fidaxomicin a better choice for C. diff than Vancomycin?
    More narrow spectrum, doesn’t wipe out all the flora
  32. Is Fidaxomicin bacteriostatic or bactericidal?
    Bacteriostatic
  33. What are the side effects for Fidaxomicin?
    N/V
  34. What is the MOA for clindamycin?
    Protein synthesis inhibitor, blocks translocation
  35. A chlorine was added to the original formulation of clindamycin, what advantage did this impart?
    Greater lipophilicity, i.e. better penetration

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