Pharmacology - Macrolides 5

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kyleannkelsey
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259171
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Pharmacology - Macrolides 5
Updated:
2014-01-29 20:54:40
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Pharmacology Macrolides
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Pharmacology - Macrolides 5
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Pharmacology - Macrolides 5
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  1. Bacterial exacerbations of Bronchitis caused by what bacteria can be treated with tetracyclines?
    Chlamydia pneumonia
  2. Bacterial sinusitis caused by what bacteria can be treated with tetracyclines?
    Chlamydia pneumonia
  3. What treatment consideration needs to be taken when treating Helicobacter pylori infections with tetracyclines?
    Use in combo
  4. What is a common combination treatment for P. acne using tetracyclines?
    Clindamycin orally and topical tetracyclines
  5. Tigecycline is a derivative of what tetracycline?
    Minocycline
  6. Is Tigecycline a broad or narrow spectrum antibiotic?
    Very broad
  7. What type of antibiotic is Tigecycline?
    Glycylcycline
  8. What is the MOA of Tigecycline?
    Same as Tetracyclines, Protein synthesis inhibitor
  9. Is Tigecycline bacteriostatic or cidal?
    Static (just like tetracyclines)
  10. The adverse effects of Tigecycline are similar to tetracyclines, though one adverse effect is greatly enhanced, which is it?
    Hepatotoxicity
  11. What are the main uses of Tigecycline?
    Complicated intra-abdominal infections and Staph/Streptococci skin-related infections
  12. What important bacterial groups is Tigecycline not active against?
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus species and some various G-
  13. What is the route of administration of Tigecycline?
    IV
  14. What is the half-life of Tigecycline?
    40 hours
  15. Which antibiotic has a sweet smell to it?
    Chloramphenicol
  16. Why is Chloramphenicol rarely used?
    Many serious side effects
  17. Is Chloramphenicol broad or narrow spectrum?
    Broad
  18. What major bacteria does Chloramphenicol treat?
    G+ anaerobic cocci, Strep pneumonia, Rickettsiae, H. infienzae,Some bacteriodes, Salmonella typhi, N. meningitides
  19. What general categories of bacteria are treated by Chloramphenicol?
    G+, G-, anaerobic, aerobic
  20. What is the MOA of Chloramphenicol?
    Inhibits protein synthesis by bidning the 50S ribosomal subunit and inhibiting peptidyl transferase, stopping AA linking
  21. What is a common laboratory use for Chloramphenicol?
    Used to completely halt protein synthesis in microorganism
  22. Chloramphenicol effect s CYP450, does it inhibit or induce?
    Inhibits
  23. What bone effect s does Chloramphenicol have?
    Inhibits mitochondrial protein synthesis in the bone marrow
  24. Would Chloramphenicol be useful in an extensive bone infection?
    Yes
  25. Is Chloramphenicol lipid or water soluble?
    Lipophilic
  26. What body fluids does Chloramphenicol distribute to?
    All
  27. By what route is Chloramphenicol absorbed?
    All routes
  28. What percent of Chloramphenicol is bound to plasma proteins?
    50%
  29. What is the half-life of Chloramphenicol?
    2 hours
  30. How is Chloramphenicol metabolize?
    Metabolized to a glucuronide ( some excreted unchanged too)
  31. What are the major adverse effect sof Chloramphenicol?
    Aplastic anemia, bone marrow suppression, neonatal toxicity, GI effects, rash, fever and Glossitis
  32. What is the occurrence rate of aplastic anemia (bone marrow suppression)?
    1:20,000-40,000
  33. Is Chloramphenicol caused aplastic anemia reversible?
    No and fatal
  34. Is Chloramphenicol caused aplastic anemia dose related?
    No
  35. At what point after Chloramphenicol administration can aplastic anemia occur?
    Wide range, can be months after use
  36. What happens when you have bone marrow suppression from Chloramphenicol, is it reversible?
    Causes reduced RBC numbers, yes it is reversible
  37. What is neonatal toxicity (as caused by Chloramphenicol)?
    Baby’s livers cannot glucuronadate Chloramphenicol, causing toxic buildup ( adults can get the same thing on too high a dose)
  38. What is Glossitis?
    Inflammation of the tongue
  39. Why does Chloramphenicol cause glossitis?
    Likely due to yeast infection type superinfections of the mouth
  40. What are the indications for Chloramphenicol?
    Typhoid fever/ Rickettsiae, bacterial meningitis, Anaerobic infections (Rare, would likely use something else)

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