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What is perception?
How we make sense of our senses
What influences perception? (5)
- Nature of stimulus
- Change, repetition, size, and intensity
- Background and surroundings of stimulus
- Previous experiences
- Personal feelings
What is a defense mechanism?
Ways of dealing with a problem so it is less troublesome; are not harmful unless we rely on them
Name the 7 types of defense mechanisms
- Rationalization (sweet lemons and sour grapes)
- Reaction formation
Pushing something out of conscience mind
Denying the existence
Coming up with reasons as to not accept the real reason
Projecting bad qualities onto others
Taking extreme feelings and acting out the opposite
When a problem cannot be dealt maturely, revert to childlike manners
What is a neuroses?
Exaggerated defense mechanisms to deal with anxieties and life
What is a psychoses?
More severe than neuroses; caused by organic and chemical damage
Neuroses or psychoses: can deal with daily life
Neuroses or psychoses: cannot deal with daily life
Characteristics of neuroses
- Aware of problem
- Cannot cope but in touch with reality
- Do not hallucinate, delusion, personality change
- Understand problem
Characteristics of psychoses
- unable to function normally
- unaware of problem
- lose touch with reality via hallucinations and delusions and personality shifts
Name five types of neuroses
- Hysterical reaction
Name two types of psychoses
- Organic psychoses
- Functional psychoses
Name three types of functional psychoses
- Manic depression
- Personality disorders
What's an organic psychoses?
Organic problems, vitamin deficiencies, poisons, damaged brain
What's manic depression?
Super high to suicidal
Lose contact with reality, live in fantasy, emotionally flat, hallucinations, delusions, illogical
What are the four types of schiozphrenia?
- Hebephrenic (child)
- Catatonic (stay still)
- Paranoid (persecution)
What are the two types of personality disorders?
- Psychopathic (no conscience)
What's the new definition of intelligence?
The ability to learn from past mistakes from biological inheritance and past experiences
What is the old definition of intelligence?
Intelligence quotient: attempt to measure intellectual ability and probably success in school through standardized testing
Who created the first standardized testing?
Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon (called the Simon Binet test)
How do you calculate IQ?
mental age / chronological age x 100
What IQ score labels you gifted? Slow learned?
What are the problems with labels such as gifted and slow learner?
- Gifted labels encouraged students & increased self confidence
- Teacher's expectations change because of label
- Teacher awarded higher marks
- Teacher paid more attention to them
Why do minorities score lower in IQ tests?
- Experiences differ from those of test makers
- Culturally based on middle class white Americans
Name the weaknesses of IQ testing (6)
- Assuming IQ tests can measure intelligence
- IQ cannot be alterable
- Doesn't measure other skills and abilities
- Doesn't consider subject's state of mind
- Label students incorrectly = self fulfilling prophecy
What's the pigeon effect?
Test may sometimes label students incorrectly = self fulfilling prophecy
What are the nine types of intelligences?
- Bodily kinesthetic
What are some negative self fulfilling prophecies in the movie "Stand and Deliver"?
- Daughter about to be pulled out of school to work at the restaurant bs stupid
- Police stopping teenagers bc delinquints
- No summer school for kids - pointless
- No university; not gonna amount to anything slow learner
- Math department saying they can't learn calculus